Phoenicie (UK /fˈnɪʃə/ or US /fəˈnʃə/;[2] from the Greek: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē; Arabic: فينيقية‎, Finiqyah) with an ancient Semitic civilisation situated on the western coastal part of the Fertile Crescent, centred on the coastline of modern Lebanon and the Tartus Territory in Syrie. All major Phoenician cities were on the coastlines of the Mediterranean, some colonies reaching the Western Mediterranean coastlines. It was an enterprising maritime traditional culture that spread all along the Mediterranean sea from 1550 BC till 300 BC. The Phoenicians used the galley, a man powered sailing vessel, which are credited to the invention of the bireme people.[3] They were famous in Classical Greece and also Rome, as "traders in purple", referring to their monopoly on the precious purple dye of the Murex snail, used, among other things, for dyeing clothings, and also known for their spread of the alphabet (or abjad), from which almost all modern phonetic alphabets are derived.

1200 BC–539 BC
Cairt o Phoenicia an trade routes
Cairt o Phoenicia an trade routes
  • Byblos (1200 BC–1000 BC)
  • Tyre (1000 BC–333 BC)
Common leidsPhoenician, Punic
Canaanite releegion
GovrenmentKingship (Ceety-states)
Well-known keengs o Phoenician ceeties 
• c. 1000 BC
• 969 BC – 936 BC
Hiram I
• 820 BC – 774 BC
Pygmalion o Tyre
Historical eraClassical antiquity
• Established
1200 BC
• Tyre, unner the reign o Hiram I, acomes the dominant ceety-state
969 BC
• Pygmalion foonds Carthage (legendary)
814 BC
• Cyrus the Great conquers Phoenicie
539 BC
• 1200 BC[1]
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Achaemenid Phoenicie
Auncient Carthage
The day pairt o


  1. "Phoenicia". The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2001. p. 1. Archived frae the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008. |first= missin |last= (help)
  2. Oxford English Dictionary
  3. Casson, Lionel (1 December 1995). Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World. The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-0-8018-5130-8. Cite has empty unkent parameter: |coauthors= (help)