James Callaghan

Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan o Cardiff, KG, PC (27 Mairch 1912 – 26 Mairch 2005), eften kent as Jim Callaghan, wis the Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick frae 1976 tae 1979 an Leader o the Labour Pairty frae 1976 tae 1980.

The Laird Callaghan o Cardiff

James Callaghan (1975).jpg
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
5 Aprile 1976 – 4 Mey 1979
MonarchElizabeth II
Precedit biHarold Wilson
Succeedit biMargaret Thatcher
Leader o the Opposeetion
In office
4 Mey 1979 – 10 November 1980
MonarchElizabeth II
Prime MeenisterMargaret Thatcher
Precedit biMargaret Thatcher
Succeedit biMichael Foot
Leader o the Labour Pairty
In office
5 Aprile 1976 – 10 November 1980
DeputeMichael Foot
Precedit biHarold Wilson
Succeedit biMichael Foot
Foreign Secretar
In office
5 Mairch 1974 – 8 Aprile 1976
Prime MeenisterHarold Wilson
Precedit biAlec Douglas-Home
Succeedit biAnthony Crosland
Shaidae Foreign Secretar
In office
19 Aprile 1972 – 28 Februar 1974
LeaderHarold Wilson
Precedit biDenis Healey
Succeedit biGeoffrey Rippon
Shaidae Secretar o State for Employment
In office
19 October 1971 – 19 Aprile 1972
LeaderHarold Wilson
Precedit biBarbara Castle
Succeedit biDenis Healey
Shaidae Home Secretar
In office
19 Juin 1970 – 19 October 1971
LeaderHarold Wilson
Precedit biQuintin Hogg
Succeedit biShirley Williams
Hame Secretar
In office
30 November 1967 – 19 Juin 1970
Prime MeenisterHarold Wilson
Precedit biRoy Jenkins
Succeedit biReginald Maudling
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
16 October 1964 – 30 November 1967
Prime MeenisterHarold Wilson
Precedit biReginald Maudling
Succeedit biRoy Jenkins
Shaidae Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
2 November 1961 – 16 October 1964
LeaderHugh Gaitskell
Harold Wilson
Precedit biHarold Wilson
Succeedit biReginald Maudling
Parliamentary an Financial Secretar tae the Admiralty
In office
2 Mairch 1950 – 25 October 1951
Prime MeenisterClement Attlee
Precedit biJohn Dugdale
Succeedit biAllan Noble
Pairlamentary Secretar tae the Meenistry o Transport
In office
7 October 1947 – 2 Mairch 1950
Prime MeenisterClement Attlee
Precedit biGeorge Strauss
Succeedit biGeorge Lucas
Faither o the Hoose
In office
9 Juin 1983 – 11 Juin 1987
Precedit biJohn Parker
Succeedit biBernard Braine
Member o Pairlament
for Cardiff Sooth an Penarth
Cardiff Sooth East (1950–1983)
Cardiff Sooth (1945–1950)
In office
26 Julie 1945 – 11 Juin 1987
Precedit biArthur Evans
Succeedit biAlun Michael
Personal details
BornLeonard James Callaghan
27 Mairch 1912(1912-03-27)
Portsmouth, Hampshire, Unitit Kinrick
Dee'd26 Mairch 2005(2005-03-26) (aged 92)
Ringmer, East Sussex, Unitit Kinrick
Poleetical pairtyLabour
Spoose(s)Audrey Moulton (m. 1938; d. 2005)
SignaturJames Callaghan's signatur
Militar service
Service/branchRyal Navy
Battles/warsWarld War II

Tae date, Callaghan remeens the anerly person tae hae haud aw fower Great Offices o State, haein served as Chancellor o the Exchequer (1964–1967), Hame Secretar (1967–1970) an Furrin Secretar (1974–1976) prior tae his appyntment as Prime Meenister. As Prime Meenister, he haed some successes, but is mainly remembered for the "Winter o Discontent" o 1978–79. In a verra cauld winter, his battle wi tred unions led tae immense strikes that seriously inconvenienced the public, leadin tae his defeat in the polls bi Conservative leader Margaret Thatcher.

Whan enterin the Hoose o Commons in 1945, he wis on the left weeng o the pairty. Callaghan steadily muived taewart the richt, but mainteened his reputation as "The Keeper o the Cloth Cap"—that is, he wis seen as dedicatit tae mainteenin close ties atween the Labour Pairty an the tred unions. Callaghan's period as Chancellor o the Exchequer coincidit wi a turbulent period for the Breetish economy, in that he haed tae warstle wi a balance o peyments deficit an speculative attacks on the poond sterling (its exchynge rate tae ither currencies wis awmaist fixed bi the Bretton Woods seestem). On 18 November 1967, the govrenment devailyie'd the poond sterling. Callaghan becam Hame Secretar. He sent the Breetish Airmy tae support the polis in Northren Ireland, efter a request frae the Northren Ireland Govrenment.

Efter Labour wis defeatit at the 1970 general election, Callaghan played a key role in the Shaidae Cabinet. He becam Furrin Secretar in 1974 upon Labour regainin govrenment, takin responsibility for renegotiatin the terms o the UK's membership o the European Commonties, an supportin a "Ay" vote in the 1975 referendum tae remeen in the EC. Whan Prime Meenister Harold Wilson resigned in 1976, Callaghan defeatit five ither candidates tae be electit as his replacement. Labour haed alresdy lost its narrae majority in the Hoose o Commons bi the time he becam Prime Meenister, an forder bi-election defeats an defections forced Callaghan tae deal wi minor pairties sic as the Leeberal Pairty, pairteecularly in the "Leeb–Lab pact" frae 1977 tae 1978. Industrial disputes an widespreid strikes in the 1978 "Winter o Discontent" made Callaghan's govrenment unpopular, an the defeat o the referendum on devolution for Scotland led tae the successfu passage o a motion o na confidence on 28 Mairch 1979. This wis followed bi a defeat at the ensuin general election.

Callaghan remeened Labour Pairty leader till November 1980, in order tae reform the process bi that the pairty electit its leader, afore returnin tae the backbenches whaur he remeened till he wis made a life peer as Baron Callaghan o Cairdiff. He went on tae leeve langer nor ony ither Breetish prime meenister in history—92 years an 364 days.