Jalandhar (Punjabi: ਜਲੰਧਰ) is a ceity in Jalandhar destrict in the state o Panjab, Indie. It is locatit 144 km northwast o the state caipital, Chandigarh. It wis kent as Prasthala at the time o the Mahabharta an as Jullundur in Breetish times.
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|• Diveesional Commissioner||S. R. Ladhar|
|• Total||34 km2 (13 sq mi)|
|Elevation||228 m (748 ft)|
|• Density||27,000/km2 (69,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||PB 08|
Jalandhar an Multan are the auldest survivin ceities o the Punjab region, wi historical references as far back as A.D. 100. The Jalandhar Doab (the region surroondin the ceity atween the Beas an Sutlej rivers) merked the eastmaist territory o the empire o Alexander the Great an aw. He erectit giant altars in this aurie tae merk the eastren maist extent o his empire an foondit a ceity named Alexandria in the vicinity an left mony Macedonian veterans thare an aw.
In the 7t century, when the famous Cheenese traveller an pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visitit Indie durin the reign o Harsha Vardhana, the Kinrick o Jalandhara or Trigarta wis unner the rule o Raja Utito (whom Alexander Cunningham identifees wi the Rajput Raja Attar Chand o the Katoch dynasty). The kinrick wis said tae hae extendit 167 mile (269 km) frae east tae wast an 133 mile (214 km) frae north tae sooth, sicweys includin the hill states o Chamba, Mandi an Suket (Himachal Pradesh) an Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. The ceity proper o Jalandhar wis, when visitit bi Hiuen Tsiang, a muckle ceity, miles in circuit, an functioned as the caipital o a Rajput kinrick. Raja Utito wis a tributary o Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear tae hae continued tae rule ower the kintra richt up tae the 12t century, wi occasional interruptions, but thair caipital wis Jalandhar an Kangra formed an important stranghauld.
Accordin tae the Cheenese pilgrim Fa Hien, who traveled Indie atween 399 an 411 C.E., thare wur a great mony Viharas o Buddhism in Indie. In the Jalandhar Doab, thare wur as mony as 50 Viharas o Buddhism. The Buddhist releegion wis adoptit bi a lairge nummer o fowk. As per some historians an scholars the fowert Buddhist Cooncil oot o tot sax Buddhist Cooncils teuk place in Jalandhar in the first century AD durin the reign o King Kanishka. The fowert cooncil o Mahayana Buddhism teuk place here, an placed Buddha as a God at the cooncil.
Jalandhar became the seat o Nath muivement frae 8t tae 10t century AD, ane o its greatest saunt wis Jalandhar Nath, whose samadhi later became the steid o the existin shrine o Imam Nasir-ud-din Chishti in the fifteent century. Frae the later hauf o the tent century up tae AD 1019, the destrict wis includit in the Shahi Kinrick o the Punjab an Jalandhar wis an important ceity in the region. In aboot 1188 it fell tae the control o Ibrahim Shah o Ghor. Unner the Mughals Jalandhar wis the caipital o a sarkar.
In 1758 Maharaja Ghamand Chand o the Katoch dynasty wis made the (first iver Rajput) Nizam o Jalandhar bi the Durranis. Mony Rajputs lived in an aroond the surroondin auries o Jalandhar afore the pairtition in 1947. Wi the pairtition o the kintra, mony lik the Manj an Rawal Rajputs went tae settle in the Pakistan side o the Punjab, whilst some went tae ither kintras.
Jalandhar wis captured bi the Sikhs in 1757 an captured bi the Faizullahpuria confederacy in 1766. Ranjit Singh annexed it in 1811, an in 1846 Jalandhar became the heidquarters o the territory acquired bi the Breetish efter the first First Anglo-Sikh Wars. Durin Breetish rule Jalandhar became the heidquarters, o the Diveesion an Destrict o the same name. Durin 1939 tae 1945, C.M. Ormerod wis the Deputy Commissioner o Jalandhar destrict. He wis in chairge o Land Revenue depairtment an chairman o Destrict Buird tae admeenister Roads, Hospitals, an schuils in the fower subdiveesion o Jalandhar destrict, namely Jalandhar, Nakodar, Philaur, an Nawanshahr. Destrict Buird wis componed o committee members nominatit bi DC frae each subdiveesion. The secretary o the Destrict Buird wis Sardar Narinder Singh frae veelage Shankar an prominent members wur Sardar Santa Singh Zaildar frae Jalandhar subdiveesion an Sardar Gurbachan Singh Zaildar frae veelage Garhpadhana subdiveesion Nawanshahr. The last commissioner o Jalandhar in 1949 wis Mr Fletcher afore an Indie naitional teuk ower this poseetion. In 1947 wi the unthirldom an pairtition o Indie the Muslim population left for Pakistan while Hindus an Sikhs arrived frae the ither direction.
The ceity haes a humid subtropical climate wi ceul winters an het simmers. Simmers last frae Aprile tae Juin an winters frae November tae Februar. Temperaturs in the simmer vary frae average heichs o aroond 48 °C (118 °F) tae average laws o aroond 25 °C (77 °F). Winter temperaturs vary frae heichs o 19 °C (66 °F) tae laws o −5 °C (23 °F). The climate is dry on the whole, except durin the brief soothwast monsoon saison durin Julie an August. The average annual rainfaw is aboot 70 cm.
Jalandhar haes numerous hospitals, includin Mahajan Ee Hospital, Thind Ee Hospital, Patel Hospital, Tagore Hospital, Lajwanti Hospital, Oxford Hospital, Pruthi Hospital, Guru Nanak Mission Hospital, Ruby Hospital, an Ghai Hospital. Awtho each hospital haes its awn identity, Mahajan Ee Hospital an Thind Ee Hospital are on the warld cairt for thair Lasik treatments. Jalandhar is the warld's biggest manufacturer o leather tuil pouches an aprons an aw; major American an European customers buy frae factories in Jalandhar. It is the biggest suppleer o sports material in the kintra. Jalandhar wis a hub o the Gandhi govrenment's green revolution o Indie in the early 1960s. Dr. Dilbag Singh Athwal, a renouned scientist in plant breedin, developed Indie's first heich-yield wheat, Kalyan. The wheat he named efter his native veelage Kalyanpur, 6 mile (9.7 km) soothwast o Jalandhar. Later, Dr. Athwal heidit the Internaitional Rice Research Institute an the Internaitional Agricultural Development Service. Dr. Athwal teuk early retirement frae his poseetion as senior vice preses Rockefeller Institute. The veelage Kalyanpur (nou pairt o Jalandhar) haes produced prominent scientists includin Dr. Raghbir Singh, Dr. Rajbir Kaur, an Dr. Iqbal Singh Athwal. Jalandhar haes an electrical guids industry an aw. Manufacturers lik Hazel India, Standard Switchgears an Apex Electricals are locatit in Jalandhar. An internaitional sports mercat is situatit in Jalandhar. Major sports brands sic as BAS Vampire, Bhaseen's Baspo, JJ Jonex, an Syndicate Sports come frae this pairt o the warld. Jalandhar is ken for thrust bearins an ball bearins an aw; braunds sic as BKE, IBI an KKK belang tae the ceity.
Posh Localities: Master Mota Singh Nagar, Model Toun, Jawahar Nagar & Udham Singh Nagar
The first leid o maist fowk in the ceity is Punjabi. Punjabi is the offeecial leid o the ceity o Jalandhar. Due tae warm an enterprisin natur o Punjabis, fowk frae different culturs are settlin here, enrichin the ceity wi new leids sic as Hindi, Inglis, Rajasthani, Himachali etc.
The ceity serves as the region's heidquarters for newspapers, naitional televeesion an radio stations.
- Daily Nawan Zamana
- Rozana Ajit (Daily Ajit)
- Akali Patrika
- Amar Ujala
- Dainik Jagran
- Dainik Bhaskar
- Punjab Kesari
- Hind Samachar (Urdu)
- Doaba Headlines
- Hindustan Times
- The Tribune
Local radio stations include:
Jalandhar ceity haes a big beuk mercat whaur a variety o beuks can be bought or sauld. This mercat aurie is kent as Main Hira Gate or Adda Tanda Road. Modren Beuk Depot, Subhash Beuk Depot an Gupta Beuk Depot are some o the auldest beukshops. Thare are mony learnin centres an aw, sic as Institute o Banking Services (IBS).
Construction on Jalandhar Cantonment began in 1848. It is notable no anerlie for its age, as it amang the auldest cantonments in the kintra, but for its proximity tae Pakistan an aw. It figured in the 1920 Connaught Rangers mutiny when Erse sodgers replaced the Union Banner wi the Erse Republic's banner.
Villages aroond JalandharEedit
Sansarpur, Jamsher Khas, Talhan, Salempur Masanda, Parasrampur, Gillaan, Gakhal an Kukar Pind Patara, Sarai-khas. Wariana. Heerapur, Hailer, Rajowal, Sangalsohl, Mand. Nagra, Nandanpur, Mirpur, Kotli, Gazipur, Fateh Jalaal, Soora, Nussi, Lambra, Rasoolpur, Talwandi Bharo, Hairan, Parjian, Malian, Uggi, Chitti, Khaira Majha, Pattar Kalan, Pattarkhurd, Nangal Manoor, Mudh, Sial, Sarhali, Lammapind, Shekha, Dhogri, Chuhrowali, Kalabakra, Daroli kalan, Diwali, Dhina, Salempur, Talwan, Jandiala, Sangha Khalsa, Bhagala, RamaMandi, Dakoha, Dhannowali, Ladhewali, Littran, Shafipur, Chachoki, Jandusingha, Singhpura. Daduwal, Semi, Khajurla, Bidhipur/Gopalpur, Khusropur, Takharan.
- "tourism". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 1 Apryle 2009.
- Jullundur Town - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 14, p. 231.
- Hugh Tinker (1966). South Asia: A Short History. Frederick A. Praeger.
- Jalandhar Archived 2010-08-11 at the Wayback Machine Govrenment o Punjab, Indie wabsteid
- Refuge in memories - Dawn
- "Jalandhar Cantt". National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 1 Apryle 2009.
- Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Encyclopedia of Jalandhar, 2004, published bi The Sikh Varsity Press Belgium.
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Jalandhar.|
- Offeecial wabsteid
- Paper aboot the Jalandhari presence in the UK, Centre for Applied South Asian Studies (CASAS) Archived 2012-07-18 at the Wayback Machine