Great Northren War

The Great Northren War (1700–1721) wis a war whaur a coaleetion led bi the Tsardom o Roushie kempit wi the supremacy o the Swadish Empire wi sonse, in Middlins, Northren, an Eastlin Europe. The initial heid anes o the anti-Swadish alliance war Peter the Great o Roushie, Frederick IV o Denmark–Norawa an Augustus II the Strang o Saxony-Poland. Frederick IV an Augustus II war forced oot o the alliance in 1700 an 1706 respectively, but rejyned it in 1709. George I o Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) jyned the coaleetion in 1714 for Hanover an in 1717 for Breetain, an Frederick William I o Brandenburg-Proushie jyned it in 1715.

Great Northren War
Great Northern War.jpg
Clockwise frae tap: Battle o Narva, Battle o Düna, Battle o Poltava, Battle o Gangut, Battle o Gadebusch
DateFebruar 22, 1700 – September 10, 1721
(21 years, 6 months an 19 days, N.S.)
LocationNorthren, Eastren an Central Europe

Coalition victory:

Treaty o Nystad: Roushie gains the three dominions Estonia, Livonie an Ingrie as well as pairts o Kexholm an Viborg.
Treaties o Stockholm: Pruoushie gains pairts o Swadish Pomerania.
Hanover gains Bremen-Verden.
Treaty o Frederiksborg: Holstein–Gottorp loses its pairt o the Duchy o Schleswig tae Denmark.

Swaden Swadish Empire

Pols–Lithuanie Commonweel
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Cossack Hetmanate (1708–09)
Kinrick o Great Breetain Great Breetain
Dutch Republic Dutch Republic

Kinrick o Ingland Kinrick o Ingland (1700)

Roushie Tsardom o Roushie

Electorate o Saxony Electorate o Saxony
(1700–06, 1709–19)
Pols–Lithuanie Commonweel
(1701–04, 1704–09, 1709–19)
Denmark Denmark–Norawa
(1700, 1709–20)
Kinrick o Proushie Kinrick o Proushie (1715–21)
Province o Hanover Electorate o Hanover (1715–19)
Kinrick o Great Breetain Great Breetain
Commanders an leaders

Swaden Charles XII (–1718)
Swaden Eleonora I (1718–20)
Swaden Frederick I (1720–)

Frederick IV (–1702)
Duke Charles (1702–)
Stanisław I

Ottoman Empire Ahmed III

Ivan Mazepa † (1708–)
Kinrick o Great Breetain George I

Roushie Peter I

Electorate o Saxony 
Augustus II
(personal union)

Denmark Frederick IV

Ivan Mazepa (1700–08)

Kinrick o Proushie Frederick William I

Province o Hanover 
Kinrick o Great Breetain
George I
(personal union)

Initial force:
Swaden: 76,000[1]
: 5,000[2]
Temporary support (1700):
Brunswick-Lüneburg: 10,000
Dutch Republic: 13 ships[3]
Kinrick o Ingland: 12 ships[3]

Later allies (1704–14):
: 24,000[4]
Ottoman Empire: 130,000[5]
: 4,000[6]

Initial force:
Roushie: 110,000[7]
Electorate o Saxony: 30,000[8]
: 50,000[9]
Denmark: 40,000[10]
: 30,000[7]

Later allies (1715–20):
Kinrick o Proushie: 50,000
Province o Hanover: 20,000[11]
Casualties an losses

Aboot 200,000 Swadish: 25,000 killt in combat,

175,000 killt bi faimin, disease an exhaustion.[12]
Leastweys 75,000 Roushies killt in combat.
14,000–20,000 Poles, Saxons an 8,000 Danes killt in the lairger battles.
60,000 Danes in tot atween 1709–1719.[13]


  1. Olle Larsson, Stormaktens sista krig (2009) Lund, Historiska Media. p. 78. ISBN 978-91-85873-59-3
  2. Bengt Liljegren (2000). Karl XII: En biografi. Lund: Historiska media
  3. a b Ericson, Sjöslag och rysshärjningar (2011) Stockholm, Norstedts. p. 55. ISBN 978-91-1-303042-5
  4. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. pp. 214.
  5. A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, David R. Stone. Greenwood Publishing Group (2006). pp. 57.
  6. Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. pp. 240.
  7. a b Boris Grigorjev & Aleksandr Bespalov (2012). Kampen mot övermakten. Baltikums fall 1700-1710. pp. 52
  8. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. p 51.
  9. Józef Andrzej Gierowski – Historia Polski 1505–1764 (History of Poland 1505–1764), pp. 258–261
  10. ", Örjan Martinsson. Danish force". Retrieved 24 August 2014.
  11. Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700 - 1721, II. p 132.
  12. Ericson, Lars, Svenska knektar (2004) Lund: Historiska media[page needit]
  13. Lindegren, Jan, Det danska och svenska resurssystemet i komparation (1995) Umeå : Björkås : Mitthögsk[page needit]