Open main menu
For ither uises, see Faiyum (disambiguation).

Faiyum (Arabic: الفيومFayyūm, Coptic: 'Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ Paiom) is a ceety in Middle Egyp an the caipital o the Faiyum Govrenorate. It is locatit 130 km soothwast o Cairo an occupies pairt o the auncient steid o Crocodilopolis. Foondit in aroond 4000 B.C., it is the auldest ceety in Egyp an ane o the auldest in Africae.

Faiyum is locatit in Egypt
Location in Egyp
Coordinates: 29°18′0″N 30°50′0″E / 29.30000°N 30.83333°E / 29.30000; 30.83333
Kintra  Egyp
Govrenorate Faiyum
Population (2006)
 • Tot 316,772
Time zone EST (UTC+2)

Name an etymologyEedit

pA-y-m (Faiyum)
in hieroglyphs

Its name in Inglis is an' a' spelled as Fayum, Fayoum, Al Fayyum or El Faiyūm. Faiyum wis previously offeecially named Madīnet el Faiyūm (Arabic for The Ceety o Faiyum). The name Faiyum (an its spellin variations) mey an' a' refer tae the Faiyum Oasis, awtho it is commonly uised bi Egyptians the day tae refer tae the ceety.[1][2]

The modren name o the ceety comes frae Coptic 'Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ /Ⲡⲉⲓⲟⲙ efiom/peiom (whence the proper name Ⲡⲁⲓⲟⲙ payom), meanin the Sea or the Lake, which in turn comes frae late Egyptian pA y-m o the same meanin, a reference tae the nearbi Lake Moeris.

Auncient ceetyEedit

Main airticle: Crocodilopolis

Modren ceetyEedit

Faiyum haes several lairge bazaars, mosques,[3] baths an a muckle-frequentit weekly mercat. The canal cried Bahr Yussef runs throu the ceety, its banks lined wi hooses. Thare are twa brigs ower the river: ane o three airches, which cairies the main street an bazaar, an ane o twa airches, ower which is biggit the Qaitbay mosque, that wis a gift frae his wife tae honour the Mamluk Sultan in Fayoum. Moonds north o the ceety merk the site o Arsinoe, kent tae the auncient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, whaur in auncient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris wis worshipped.[4]

The centre o the ceety is on the canal, wi the fower waterwheels, that are adoptit bi the govrenorate o Fayoum as its naitional seembol, thair chariots an bazaars are easy tae spat.

Faiyum mummy portraitsEedit

Portrait o a man, ca. 125-150 AD.. Encaustic on wid; 37 x 20 cm.
Main airticle: Faiyum mummy portraits

Faiyum is the soorce o some famous daith masks or mummy portraits paintit durin the Roman occupation o the aurie. The Egyptians continued thair practice o buryin thair deid, despite the Roman preference for cremation. While unner the control o the Roman Empire, Egyptian daith masks wur paintit on wid in a pigmentit wax technique cried encaustic—the Faiyum mummy portraits represent this technique.[5] While commonly believed tae represent Greek settlers in Egyp, the Faiyum portraits insteid reflect the complex synthesis o the predominant Egyptian cultur an that o the elite Greek minority in the ceety.

Undisputit remains o early anthropoids date frae the late Eocene an early Oligocene, aboot 34 million years ago, in the Fayyum aurie, soothwast o Cairo. Ane o the earliest fossil primates at Fayum is Catopithecus, datin tae aroond 35 million years ago.

Famous SteidsEedit

Notable fowkEedit

Tefta Tashko-Koço, well kent Albanian sangster wis born in Faiyum, whaur her faimily lived at that time.

See an awEedit


Freemit airtinsEedit