Criffel is a hill in Kirkcoubrieshire on the Solway Firth near the veilage o New Abbey. It is 570 metres (1,870 feet) it is the eighth maist prominent hill in southern Scotland. It Is surroondit by a host o smaller hills, sic as Lang Fell, Maidenpap an Bainloch Hill. The slopes o Criffel feature the upland vegetation o heather, bog cotton 'n' blueberry an ur inhabitit by Laverocks. Loch Kindar sits at the foot o the hill.
The name Criffel is recordit in 1273 as Crufel. The saicant pairt o the name, -fel, is aither Auld Scots or Northern Middle Inglis fell or Auld Norse fjall 'mountain'. Seein as Auld Norse fjall had been lent intae Middle Inglis by the twelfth century, it isnae possible tae sey gin the name wis gien by Scandinavian speakers or no. There's been sindry thochts anent the etymologie o the first pairt o the name. Criffel is recordit as Crofel in 1319 an in 1330 as Crefel. (Drummond gies the form Crafel in 1330, an aa; it isnae clear gin this refers tae the same source or no.) In 1892 Johnston pit forrit Gaelic crich 'boundary' + Icelandic fell in Place-Names of Scotland. Hooiver, by the saicant edition o 1903 he thocht a derivation fae Icelandic kryfja, meanin 'tae sinder' wis mair likely. In the third edition in 1934 this is the ainly derivation gien. Mills thinks the name is Auld Scandinavian kryfja + fjall an aa, but disnae think the derivation fae kryfja is siccar. In 1930 Maxwell pit forrit that the name wis fae Scandinavian kraka fjall, meanin 'corbie's or craw's hill' or fae Lowland Scots Craw Fell. William J. Watson rejected a derivation fae kraka fjall, seyin that it wid turn intae sumhin like Crackel. Geoffery Barrow thocht Criffel micht be taen fae the name Cro, whilk appears in Desnes Cro, the name o a deanery situatit atween the rivers Nith an Urr. Here Cro wid be the Gaelic wird fur bucht.
- Brooke, Daphne (1987). "The Deanery of Desnes Cro and the Church of Edingham: Churches and Saints Before 1120 AD" (PDF). Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society. LXII: 61. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 29 Julie 2019.
- Brooke, Daphne (1987). "The Deanery of Desnes Cro and the Church of Edingham: Churches and Saints Before 1120 AD" (PDF). Transactions of the Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society. LXII: 48. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 29 Julie 2019.
- Mills, A. D. (2011). A Dictionary of British Place Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 138.
- Maxwell, Herbert (1991) . The Place Names of Galloway: Their Origin & Meaning Considered. Wigtown: G. C. Book Publishers Ltd. p. 94. ISBN 1872350305.
- Johnston, James B. (1892). Place-Names of Scotland. Edinburgh: David Douglas. p. 77.
- Drummond, Peter (2010). Scottish Hill Names: Their origin and meaning (Revised 2nd ed.). Scottish Mountaineering Trust. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-907521-95-2. OCLC 148288097.
- Johnston, James B. (1903). Place-Names of Scotland (Second ed.). Edinburgh: David Douglas. p. 89.
- Johnston, James B. (1934). Place-Names of Scotland. London. p. 145.
- W. J. W. (1932). "[Review of] The Place-Names of Galloway: Their Origin and Meaning Considered by Herbert Maxwell; Scottish Place-Names by W. C. MacKenzie; Place-Names of Glengarry and Glenquoich and Their Associations by Edward C. Ellice". The Geographical Journal. 79 (5): 419. doi:10.2307/1783944. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 1783944.