Al Ain (Arabic: العين, al-ʿayn, literally The Spring), kent as the Garden City due to its greenery an awe, is the second largest city in the Emirate o Abu Dhabi an the fowert largest city in the United Arab Emirates. Wi a population o 568,221 (2010), it is locatit approximately 160 km east o the capital Abu Dhabi an aboot 120 km sooth o Dubai. Al-`Ain is the birthplace o Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the first preses o the United Arab Emirates, an it haes the kintra's heichest nummer o Emirati naitionals.
العين (in Arabic)
|Al Ain, United Arab Emirates|
A view over Green Mubazarrah
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|Kintra||United Arab Emirates|
|• Sheikh||Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan|
|• Croun prince||Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan|
|• Total||13,100 km2 (5,100 sq mi)|
|Elevation||292 m (958 ft)|
|• Density||40/km2 (100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (UAE Standard Time)|
|UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid|
An alley at the Al Ain Oasis
|Criteria||Cultural: iii, iv, v|
|Inscription||2011 (35t Session)|
Al-`Ain is locatit in the Emirate o Abu Dhabi, inland on the border wi Oman. The freeweys connectin Al-`Ain, Abu Dhabi, an Dubai fuirm a geographic triangle in the kintra, each ceety bein roughly 130 kilometres frae the ither twa.
Historically a pairt o Ṫawam or Al Buraimi Oasis. Al-`Ain haes been inhabiteit for ower 4,000 years, wi archaeological steids showin human dounset at Al-Hili an Jabel Ḥafeeṫ. These early culturs built "beehive" tombs for thair deid an engagit in huntin an gatherin in the aurie. The oasis providit watter for early ferms till the modren age.
The forts currently in Al-`Ain wur biggit in the late 19t or early 20t century tae solidifee Abu Dhabi's control ower the oasis. Wilfred Thesiger visitit Al-`Ain in the late 1940s durin his travels athort the Rub' al Khali. He met Sheikh Zayed an stayed wi him at Al Muwaiji Fort. This netwirk o fortresses servit as the tradin an slavin posts for the aurie.
In 1952 Saudi Arabie sent raiders tae captur Al-`Ain's fortresses an incorporate the oasis intae the Saudi kinrick. Forces frae the Trucial Oman Scouts, as well as the airmy o Muscat-Oman, arrivit tae recaptur the oasis. Wi Breetish intervention, the Saudi forces surrendered, leavin the oasis back in the haunds o Abu Dhabi an Muscat-Oman.
Prior tae unthirldom, Al-`Ain wis pairt o the Arabie slave trade netwirk that extendit frae east Africae intae the Persie Gulf. In the 1960s, Sheikh Zayed abolished formal slavery. The day, some faimilies in baith Al-`Ain an Al-Buraimi are strnydit frae these slaves.
In 1971 Queen Elizabeth II visitit the Hilton Hotel in the aurie, still in uise, durin her tour o the Persie Gulf. Follaein unthirldom in 1971, Al-`Ain experiencit rapid growthe an investment as pairt o the emirate o Abu Dhabi, quickly becomin lairger an mair successful than `Oman's Al-Buraimi. In 1972 `Oman an Abu Dhabi greeit on the feenal borders tae divide Al-Buraimi an Al-`Ain. Till Sheikh Zayed's daith in 2004, Al-`Ain's municipal code forbade construction o biggins ower fower stories, wi the exceptions o the Hilton, Intercontinental, an Rotana hotels.
In the 1990s, a serious uprisin occurred amang the laborers o the industrial destrict o Al-`Ain, Aṣ-Ṣana`iya. This uprisin wis suppressed bi the UAE airmy an local polis forces. Aw the laborers involvit wur interned an deportit.
Till 2006, Al-Buraimi an Al-`Ain shared a open border. This border wis closed in November 2006, an passport controls wur imposed.
Al-`Ain is locatit in the eastren region o Abu Dhabi Emirate juist sooth o Dubai an east o Abu Dhabi. The Eastren region covers a aurie o approximately 13,100 km². `Oman lees tae the east, Dubai an Sharjah tae the north, Abu Dhabi tae the wast an the Rub' al Khali desert an Saudi Arabie tae the sooth. The topografie o Al-`Ain is unique an varies as you traivel tae the east. Jebel Hafeet (Hafeet muntain) is considered ane o the monuments o Al-`Ain, leein juist tae the sootheast an risin tae 1,300 metres in elevation. Sand dunes o varyin textur that are tingit reid wi airn oxide lee tae the north an east o Al-`Ain,
In Al-`Ain, the mean annual rainfaw is 96 mm an the average relative humidity is 60% (Unitit Arab Emirates Varsity, 1993). Law humidity in Al-`Ain, pairticularly durin the simmers, maks it a popular destination for mony fowk at that time o year. Boer (1997) classifee'd the UAE climate as hyper-arid an dividit it intae fower climatic regions: the coastal zone alang the Persie Gulf, the muntain auries northeast o UAE, the graivel plains aroond Al-`Ain aurie, an the central an soothren saund desert. Mair rainfaw an lawer temperaturs occur in the northeast than in the soothren an wastren regions.
Al-`Ain haes a heicher proportion o Emirati naitionals than elsewhaur in the kintra, but the majority o its residents are expatriates pairticularly frae the Indie sub-continent. Mony fowk are frae Bangladesh, Pakistan an some frae Afghanistan. Thare are fewer ither expatriates than in the lairger centres o Abu Dhabi an Dubai.
Al-`Ain is aften cried the 'Garden Ceety o The Gulf' gien the mony oases, pairks, tree-lined avenues an decorative roondaboots athin the ceety. Strict hicht controls on new biggins, tae nae mair nor fower floors, emphasise the greenery o the ceety.
The ceety is kent for its relatively empty roads; this is a growin concern, housomeivver, as the population is increasin an the roads hae no been able tae accommodate the excess traffec.
Al-`Ain is developin as a tourist destination. The dry desert air maks it a walcome retreat frae the coastal humidity o the lairger ceeties. Mony Emirati naitionals in Abu Dhabi have holiday houses in the ceety making it a popular weekend destination for faimilies frae the caipital ceety. Its attractions include the Al Ain National Museum, the Al Ain Palace Museum, several restored forts an the Hili Airchaeological Pairk steid, datin back tae the Bronze Age. Jebel Hafeet, a 1340-metre-heich muntain, dominates the surroondin aurie. It is popular tae visit tae the mineral springs at the base an tae drive tae the muntaintop at sunset. Ither attractions include the Al Ain Oasis in the ceety centre, ither oases dottit aroond the aurie — aw ceul retreats in the middle o the simmer heat — Al Ain Zoo, an amusement pairk namit "Hili Fun City", mony well-maintained pairks popular wi faimilies in the simmer fore-nichts, an a heritage veelage. Opened in 2012, Wadi Adventure is locatit near Jebel Hafeet an provides a range o watter-based activities includin surfin, kayakin an raftin.
Al-`Ain haes three major malls — Al Ain Mall in the toun centre, Al-Jimi Mall in the Al-Jimi destrict, an Bawadi Mall locatit in the Al-Khrair Destrict. Maist commercial activity is centred in an aroond toun centre.
Anither popular pastime for Emiratis an expatriates alike is spendin time in coffee shops an Shisha cafes. Thare are mony cafes in Al-`Ain, rangin in size an quality.
Al-`Ain haes a internaitional staundart go-kairt circuit an aw. Al Ain Raceway wis selectit tae host the 2007 Rotax Max World Karting Finals, a event which saw 220 drivers frae ower 55 different kintras compete for the Kairtin warld title. Al Ain Raceway opened tae the general public in Mey 2008 an pruives a popular activity for local Emiratis an tourists alike. It wis annooncit in late 2010 that the 2011 Rotax Max World Karting Finals will be held at Al Ain Raceway, this will bring nearly 1000 tourists to the small garden ceety.
Like the rest o the UAE, Al-`Ain haes strict laws govrenin the consumption an distribution o alcohol. Five facilities in the ceety currently serve alcohol, fower o which are hotels. The Al-`Ain Rotana, Hilton, Mercure Grand Jebel Hafeet an Danat Al Ain Resort, hotels aw hae pubs, bars, or nicht clubs. In addeetion tae the hotels, the Al Ain Equestrian, Shooting & Golf Club in Al-Maqam serves alcohol an aw.
Currently, there are anerly fower locations that sell alcohol for private uise — Spinneys near Al-Jimi Destrict, a ootlet tae the left o the Hilton hotel (next tae the hotel's staff quairters), High Spirits Bottle Shop ahint Lulu Hypermarket Sana`iya an the North Africa Market in Sanaiya.
The ceety haes twa Inglis-leid radio stations — 100.1 Star FM, which plays Inglis-speakin hits alternatin wi Arabic-speakin hits, an 105.2 Abu Dhabi Classic FM, which plays clessical muisic.
Al-`Ain's oases are kent for their unnergrund irrigation seestem "falaj" (or qanāt frae Arabic قناة) that brings watter frae boreholes tae watter ferms an palm trees. Falaj irrigation is a auncient seestem datin back thoosans o years an is uised widely in `Oman, the UAE, Cheenae, Iran an ither kintras. Al-`Ain haes seiven oases; the lairgest is Al Ain Oasis, near tae Auld Sarooj, an the smawest is Al-Jahili Oasis. The rest are Al-Qaṭṭara, Al-Mu`ṫaredh, Al-Jimi, Al-Muwaiji, an Al-Hili.
Commerce an industryEedit
Al-`Ain is a important services centre for a wide aurie extendin intae `Oman. Thare are three major shoppin centers, Al Ain Mall, Al Jimi Mall an Al Bawadi Mall (opened in 2009 in the Al Khrair aurie) as well as tradeetional souks for fruit an vegetables an livestock. Industry is growin, but is still on a smaw scale, an includes the Coca Cola bottling plant an the Al Ain Portland Cement Wirks. The watter in Al-`Ain is very good. Service industries sic as car sales, mechanics an ither artisans are locatit in the aurie kent as Sanaiya an Pattan Market.Social an governmental infrastructure includes United Arab Emirates University, Higher Colleges of Technology, Abu Dhabi University (Al Ain campus), well-equipped medical facilities includin the teaching hospital at Tawam, military training auries an Al Ain International Airport.
Al-`Ain is hame tae the main federal varsity in the UAE, the Unitit Arab Emirates Varsity, an tae twa campuses o the Higher Colleges of Technology - Al Ain Men's College an Al Ain Weemen's College. Al-`Ain is the hame o Horizon International flicht academy an aw, Etihad Airways's cadet pilot trainin centre. Private heicher eddication institutions include the Al Ain Varsity o Science an Technology an Abu Dhabi Varsity (Al Ain campus).
Al-`Ain hooses the eastren zone heidquairters o the Abu Dhabi Education Council, Abu Dhabi's eddication authority.
Mony o Al-`Ain's private schuils, caterin mainly tae the expatriate population, are locatit in the Al-Manaseer aurie. Thay include Al Ain International School (Breetish curriculum, private schuil, pairt o the Aldar group), Al Ain English Speaking School, Al Dhafra Private School, Manor Hall School, Al Sanawbar School, Liwa International School, Al Madar International School, Global English School, Emirates Private School, a branch o the International School of Choueifat, an a Institute o Applee'd Technology campus. Ither private schuils include the CBSE affiliatit Indian School, Al Ain, Our Own English High School, an Al Ain Juniors School.
The first hospital in Al-`Ain wis Oasis Hospital, established in 1960 at the invitation o Sheikh Zayed. Oasis serves aw naitionalities, an provides trainin for medical students frae UAE Varsity. Oasis Hospital is pairt o CURE International.
Al-`Ain is the hame o Tawam Hospital, a trainin an research hospital linkit wi the UAE Varsity. It wis offeecially inauguratit on 17 Dizember 1979. In Mairch 2006, Johns Hopkins Hospital (Johns Hopkins Medicine International) (JHMI) teuk ower the management o Tawam hospital.
Al Ain Hospital (abbr: AAH, kent as Al Jimi Hospital an aw) is the general hospital deliverin halth services tae aw Al-`Ain patients regairdless o thair naitionality. It is centrally locatit in the Al-Jimi destrict an is linkit wi the UAE Varsity. Al Ain Hospital still occupees auld 1970s biggins, but a new biggin is planned. AAH currently haes aboot 450 beds an provides services in aw medical disciplines. In September 2007, the Medical Varsity o Vienna International (MUVI) teuk ower the management o AAH.
Al Khwarizmi International College haes stairtit a Campus at Al-`Ain an is affering BBA program an various ither licensed, accreditit an appruivit courses.
Sport, culture, an the artsEedit
The ceety is hame tae the successfu fitbaa club, Al Ain FC, which is ane o the maist successfu fitbaa clubs in the UAE an Asie. Al Ain Club conteens 7 ither geemes an aw which are: handbaw, volleybaw, basketbaw, soummin, table tennis, athletics, jiu jitsu an taekwondo.
Hili Fun City hosts twa ice hockey teams, the Al Ain Vipers an Ghantoot. Each team haes adult an youth teams stairtin frae age 4. The Al Ain Vipers Men's Team wan the Emirates Hockey League in the 2009-10 saison.
The Palm Resort tae the wast o the toun hosts a popular rugby club wi adult an youth teams, an the Al Ain International Soccer Club which haes three youth teams, includin ane for 7-9 year aulds.
Thare is a watter sports centre cried Wadi Adventure wi a wave puil an surf instructors. Addeetionally, the pairk haes facilities for kayakin an raftin on a airtificial river.
- "Hazrat Subhan Qadri at Mazar e Mubarak Hazrat Kaab Bin Ahbar RA and other Companions, Al-`Ain ,UAE". YouTube. 20 Februar 2011. Retrieved 22 Apryle 2013.
- Medical University of Vienna.
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Al Ain (Abu Dhabi).|
- Al Ain City Municipality
- Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort
- Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort. Preserving desert wildlife & habitats
- Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort. Expansion project
- Al Ain: Oasis in the Desert (Photographic essay from Al Ain Women's College)