The Schuil o Athens

The Schuil o Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is ane o the maist famous frescoes bi the Italian Renaissance airtist Raphael.

The Schuil o Athens
Dimensions500 cm × 770 cm (200 in × 300 in)
LocationApostolic Palace, Vatican City


The parenthetical names are the contemporary characters frae whom Raphael is thocht tae hae drawn his likenesses.

1: Zeno o Citium – 2: Epicurus – 3: unkent (believed tae be Raphael[1] or Federico II o Mantua?) – 4: Boethius or Anaximander or Empedocles? – 5: Averroes – 6: Pythagoras – 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? – 8: Antisthenes or Xenophon or Timon? – 9: Hypatia,[2] or Raphael,[3] or Fornarina as a personification o Luve[4] or Francesco Maria della Rovere? – 10: Aeschines or Xenophon? – 11: Parmenides? (Leonardo da Vinci) – 12: Socrates – 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) – 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci) – 15: Aristotle (Giuliano da Sangallo) – 16: Diogenes o Sinope – 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) – 18: Euclid or Archimedes wi students (Bramante?) – 19: Strabo or Zoroaster? (Baldassare Castiglione) – 20: Ptolemy? – R: Apelles (Raphael) – 21: Protogenes (Il Sodoma, Perugino, or Timoteo Viti)[5]


  1. Raphael haes reuised the motif o twa weemen frae his earlier wirk the Veesion o a Knight. Raphaël, page 215, Edition 31; Edition 42 of Chefs-d'oeuvre de l'art: Grands peintres, Taylor & Francis, 1966.
  2. Accordin tae Rudy d'Alembert (see Rudi Mathematici (in Italian), Unwin & Carline, 2009), Raphael portrayed Hypatia gin her the face o the fifteen year auld Francesco Maria della Rovere, tae hide her true identity.
  3. Understanding Art: A Concise History, 2007, p. 118
  4. Raphael's lover Fornarina is portrayed in a famous painting in the Naitional Gallery o Auncient Airt in Roum. This identification haes been introduced on 2002 bi Matteo Smolizza during his cooperation wi Lorenza Mochi Onori, umwhile Director o the Museum, in the occasion o the Exhibit La Fornarina di Raffaello, Milan, Fondazione Arte e Civiltà, March 14 - June 2, 2002. It wis later investigated on the basis of 1) poseetion o the portrait (specular tae Raphael's ane) ; 2) appearance compared wi contemporary Raphael’s drawins; 3) strictly contemporary texts bi Raphael tae the woman; 4) fresco's general meanin. Cfr. Smolizza, pp. 68-74
  5. The interpretation o this figur as Sodoma mey be in error, as Sodoma wis 33 at the time o painting, while Raphael's teacher, Perugino, wis a renained painter an aged aboot 60 at the time o this painting, consistent wi the image. Timoteo Viti is anither plausible candidate.