Charles de Gaulle

General Charles de Gaulle (22 November 1890 - 9 November 1970) wis a French general an statesman that led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in Warld War II an chaired the Proveesional Govrenment o the French Republic frae 1944 tae 1946 in order tae reestablish democracy in Fraunce. In 1958, he cam oot o reteerment whan appyntit Prime Meenister o Fraunce bi Preses René Coty. He wis asked tae rewrite the Constitution o Fraunce an foondit the Fift Republic efter appruival bi referendum. He wis electit Preses o Fraunce later that year, a poseetion he wis reelectit tae in 1965 an held till his resignation in 1969. He wis the dominant feegur o Fraunce in the Cauld War era, an his memory conteenas tae influence French politics.

Charles de Gaulle
De Gaulle in 1961
Preses o the French Republic
Co-Prince o Andorrae
In office
8 Januar 1959 – 28 Aprile 1969
Prime Meenister
Precedit biRené Coty
Succeedit biGeorges Pompidou
Prime Meenister o Fraunce
In office
1 Juin 1958 – 8 Januar 1959
PresesRené Coty
Precedit biPierre Pflimlin
Succeedit biMichel Debré
Chairman o the Proveesional Govrenment o the French Republic
In office
20 August 1944 – 20 Januar 1946
Precedit biPhilippe Pétain
Succeedit biFélix Gouin
Leader o the Free Fraunce
In office
18 Juin 1940 – 3 Julie 1944
Precedit biFrench Third Republic
Succeedit biProvisional Govrenment o the French Republic
Meenister o Defence
In office
1 Juin 1958 – 8 Januar 1959
PresesRené Coty
Prime MeenisterHimsel
Precedit biPierre de Chevigné
Succeedit biPierre Guillaumat
Meenister o the Algerian Affairs
In office
12 Juin 1958 – 9 Januar 1959
PresesRené Coty
Prime MeenisterHimsel
Precedit biAndré Mutter
Succeedit biLouis Joxe (1960)
Secretar o State o War
In office
6 Juin 1940 – 16 Juin 1940
Prime MeenisterPaul Reynaud
MinisterPaul Reynaud
Precedit biHippolyte Ducos
Succeedit biNone
Personal details
BornCharles André Joseph Pierre Marie de Gaulle
22 November 1890(1890-11-22)
Lille, Fraunce
Dee'd9 November 1970(1970-11-09) (aged 79)
Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, Fraunce
Poleetical pairtyRally o the French Fowk
Naitional Centre o Social Republicans
Union for the New Republic
Spoose(s)Yvonne de Gaulle (1921–70; his daith)
ThriftMilitary, politeecian, writer
ReligionRoman Catholicism
Militar service
AllegianceFrench Airmed Forces,
Free French Forces
Service/brainchFrench Airmy
Years o service1912–1944
RankBrigadier general
UnitInfantry, Airmoured cavalry
CommandsLeader o the Free French
Battles/warsWarld War I
Battle o Dinant
First Battle o Champagne
Battle o Verdun
Warld War II
Battle o Montcornet
Battle o Abbeville
Battle o Dakar
French Resistance
Leeberation o Paris

Born in Lille, he graduatit frae Saint-Cyr in 1912. He wis a decoratit officer o the First Warld War, woundit several times, an later taken preesoner at Verdun. In the interwar period, he advocatit mobile airmoured diveesions. In the German invasion o Mey 1940, he led an airmoured diveesion that coonterattacked the invaders; he wis then appyntit Unnersecretar for War. Refuisin tae accept his govrenment's airmistice wi Germany, De Gaulle exhortit the French population toae resist occupation an tae conteena the fecht in his Appeal o 18 Juin. He led a govrenment in exile an the Free French Forces against the Axis. Despite frosty relations wi the Unitit Kinrick an especially the Unitit States, he emerged as the undisputit leader o the French Resistance. He becam heid o the Proveesional Govrenment o the French Republic in Juin 1944, the interim govrenment o Fraunce follaein its Leeberation. As early as 1944, De Gaulle introduced a dirigiste economic policy, that includit substantial state-directit control iwer a capitalist economy that wis follaed bi 30 years o unprecedentit growthe, kent as the Trente Glorieuses.

Frustratit bi the return o petty pairtisanship in the new Fowert Republic, he resigned in early 1946 but conteena'd tae be poleetically active as foonder o the Rassemblement du Peuple Français (RPF; "Rally o the French Fowk"). He reteert in the early 1950s an wrote a beuk aboot his experience in the war teetled War Memoirs, that quickly becam a staple o modren French leeteratur. Whan the Algerie War wis rippin apart the unstable Fowert Republic, the Naitional Assemmly brocht him back tae pouer in the Mey 1958 creesis. He foondit the Fift Republic wi a strang presidency, an he wis electit tae conteena in that role. He managed tae keep Fraunce thegither while takkin steps tae end the war, muckle tae the anger o the Pieds-Noirs (ethnic French born in Algerie) an the militar; baith previously haed supportit his return tae pouer tae mainteen colonial rule. He grantit unthirldom tae Algerie an progressively tae ither French colonies.

In the context o the Cauld War, De Gaulle ineetiatit his "politics o grandeur" assertin that Fraunce as a major pouer shoud nae rely on ither kintras, sic as the Unitit States, for its naitional siccarity an prosperity. Tae this end, he pursued a policy o "naitional unthirldom" that led him tae widraw frae NATO's militar integratit command an tae launch an independent nuclear development programme that made Fraunce the fowert nuclear pouer. He restored cordial Franco-German relations tae creaut a European coonterwecht atween the Anglo-American an Soviet spheres o influence throu the signin o the Élysée Treaty on 22 Januar 1963. Houiver, he opponed ony development o a supranaitional Europe, favourin a Europe o sovereign naitions. De Gaulle appenly creeticised the Unitit States intervention in Vietnam an the "exorbitant privilege" o the Unitit States dollar. In his later years, his support for the slogan "Vive le Québec libre" an his twa vetoes o Breetain's entry intae the European Economic Commonty generatit conseederable controversy.

Awtho reelectit Preses in 1965, he appeared likely tae lose pouer amid widespreid protests bi students an wirkers in Mey 1968, but survived the creesis an wan an election wi an increased majority in the Naitional Assemmly. De Gaulle resigned in 1969 efter losin a referendum in that he proposed mair decentralisation. He dee'd a year later at his residence in Colombey-les-Deux-Églises, leavin his presidential memoirs unfeenished. Mony French poleetical pairties an feegurs claim a Gaullist legacy; several streets an monuments in Fraunce war dedicatit tae his memory efter his daith.