António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu dɨ oliˈvɐjɾɐ sɐlɐˈzaɾ]; 28 Aprile 1889 – 27 Julie 1970) serd as the Prime Meenister o Portugal frae 1932 til 1968. He serd as actin Preses o the Republic for maist o 1951 an aw. He foondit an led the Estado Novo (New State), the authoritarian, richt-wing govrenment that presidit ower an controlled Portugal frae 1932 tae 1974.

António de Oliveira Salazar
101st Prime Meenister o Portugal
(47t o the Republic)
(7t syne the 1926 coup d'état)
(1st o the Estado Novo)
In office
5 Julie 1932 – 25 September 1968
PresesAntónio Óscar Carmona (5 Julie 1932–18 Aprile 1951)
Hissel (interim) (18 Aprile 1951–9 August 1951)
Francisco Craveiro Lopes (9 August 1951–9 August 1958)
Américo Tomás (9 August 1958–25 September 1968)
Precedit biDomingos Oliveira
Succeedit biMarcelo Caetano
Meenister for Finances
In office
3 Juin 1926 – 19 Juin 1926
Prime MeenisterJosé Mendes Cabeçadas
Precedit biArmando Manuel Marques Guedes
Succeedit biFilomeno da Câmara de Melo Cabral
In office
28 Aprile 1928 – 28 August 1940
Prime MeenisterJosé Vicente de Freitas (28 Aprile 1928–8 Julie 1928)
Artur Ivens Ferraz (8 Julie 1928–21 Januar 1930)
Domingos Oliveira (21 Januar 1930–5 Julie 1932)
Hissel (5 Julie 1932–28 August 1940)
Precedit biJoão José Sinel de Cordes
Succeedit biJoão Pinto da Costa Leite, 4t Conde de Lumbrales
Meenister for the Colonies
(interim)
In office
21 Januar 1930 – 20 Julie 1930
Prime MeenisterDomingos Oliveira
Precedit biJosé Bacelar Bebiano
Succeedit biEduardo Augusto Marques
Meenister for Defence
In office
5 Julie 1932 – 2 August 1950
Prime MeenisterHissel
Precedit biPost creatit
Succeedit biSantos Costa
In office
13 Aprile 1961 – 4 December 1962
Prime MeenisterHissel
Precedit biJúlio Botelho Moniz
Succeedit biGomes de Araújo
Meenister for War
In office
11 Mey 1936 – 6 September 1944
Prime MeenisterHissel
Precedit biAbílio Passos e Sousa
Succeedit biSantos Costa
Personal details
Born28 Apryle 1889(1889-04-28)
Vimieiro, Santa Comba Dão, Portugal
Dee'd27 Julie 1970(1970-07-27) (aged 81)
Lisbon, Portugal
Poleetical pairtyAcademic Centre of Christian Democracy, later National Union
Spoose(s)Single; Niver marriet
ProfessionProfessor (economics an poleetical economy)
an economist
ReligionRoman Catholic

Accordin tae some Portuguese conservative scholars lik Jaime Nogueira Pinto an Rui Ramos, his early reforms an policies alloued political an financial stabeelity an therefore social order an economic growth, efter the politically unstable an financially tapsalteerie years o the Portuguese First Republic (1910–1926). Ither historians pynt oot that Salazar's policies led tae the kintra's economic an social stagnation an nimious emigration, turnin Portugal in ane o the puirest kintras in Europe an accompanied bi ane o the heichest rates o illiteracy.

Salazar's program wis opposed te communism, socialism, an liberalism. It wis clerical, conservative, an naitionalistic. Its policy envisaged the preservation o Portugal as a pluricontinental empire, wi Angola an Mozambique as the main colonies, an a soorce o civilisation an stabeelity tae the owerseas societies in the African an Asien possessions.

Salazar's regime an its secret police (PIDE) repressed civil liberties an political freedoms fur tae remain in control o Portugal.

Post-Salazar PortugalEedit

Efter Salazar's daith, his Estado Novo regime persistit unner the direction o ane o his langtime aides, Marcelo Caetano. In maugre o tentative overtures taewart an openin o the regime, Caetano balked at endin the colonial war, no wi'standin the condemnation o maist o the interniational community. Hinderly, the Estado Novo fell in Aprile 25, 1974, efter the Carnation Revolution. The retreat frae the colonies an the acceptance o its unthirldom terms which wad creaut newly-independent communist states in 1975 (maist notably the Fowkrepublic o Angola an the Fowkrepublic o Mozambique) promptit a mass exodus o Portuguese ceetizens frae Portugal's African territories (maistly frae Portuguese Angola an Mozambique), creatin ower a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the retornados.