Wikipedia:RRSSC Shortleet o Frequent Words in Scots

Pairt o the wirk the Scots Spellin Comatee pit in thur RRSCC wis a leet o words, based on whit som uised in "primary schuils ti lairn bairns the maist important words in English."[1] These ar set oot ablo for reference in addition tae RRSSC Common wordleet (Scots til Inglis).

NounsEedit

Scots English Comments
air air
airt place cairies the sense o “direction” asweel
answer answer
back back
baest animal but mini-beasts ar baesties
bairn child
ben mountain
beuk book EU raither nor UI afore K - cp. neuk, heuk, leuch.
bit place
bodie body if a person, pronunced “buddie”; gin a person’s body, pronunced “boadie” but spelt the same wey sen American English haes nickit the “buddie” spellin tae maen a frein, wi ither connotations forbye
boy boy
caur car
cheil fellow
childer children
ceity city
colour colour
day day
ee eye
en(d) end it’s aye temptin ti hip thir “d”s in Scots - the Comatee advises generally no ti dae it, as it aften kythes agane in derivatives an compoonds.
example example
face face
faimlie family the -ie endin is uised cause the word is itherweys chynged ti mak the Scots spellin. See notes in Extendit Discussion.
faither father
feet feet
fuid food UI phoneme in maist airts. See notes in Extendit Discussion.
form form
fower four
fowk people
gate way
group group
hail whole haill (tho aften seen) braks the dooble-vowel, single consonant rule athoot need, an hale haes anither specialised maenin ti drag, as weel as pairtnerin hertie whiles.
hame home
hantle number
haun(d), han(d)- hand maistlie han(d)- in derived forms
heid head
hint back
hoose house OO for English OU, ti evyte confuision aboot soond
idea idea
ile oil
kin(d) kind
kintra country
laddie boy
laun(d), lan(d)- land * lan(d)- in derived forms
lassie girl
leet list Kenspeckle spellin in Scottish Standard English
licht light
life life
line line
loun boy OU whaur nae confuision likely.
maet food
man man
maucht might noun form juist
men men
mile mile
mither mother
monie many
muisic music UI phoneme in maist airts.
name name
nicht night
page page
pairt part
paper paper
pictur picture
plant plant
pynt point Y for English OI
read read
rig spine, ridge
river river
sang song
schuil school haudin wi the sch- raither nor sk- or sc- cause o the sib forms frae Latin scholar, scholastic etc, whaur hippin the “h” maks for orra spellin
screive letter this form, no recently preferred bi SNDA, kythes nanetheless in SND an is preferred ti regularise the Scots -ei- rule an reflect common recent practice
sea sea
sentence sentence
side side
some some nae pronunciation differ tae justifee uisin “sum”, as in some recent practice
something something
soond sound OO for English OU, ti evyte confuision aboot soond.
state state
steid stead
stert, start start Legeitimate variants
story story
thing thing
thocht thought
three three
time time
tree tree
twa two
uiss use ti encompass by-leid variants wi the -ui- digraph.
walk walk
wark work No generally a verbal form
warld world
watter water Dooblin the “t” shaws the first syllable rhymin wi English “vat”
wean child Maistlie soondit “waen”, but a contraction o “wee ane”, an whiles no contractit in spaek, sae better spelt this tradeitional wey
wey way
word word
year year
yird earth

Adjectives an ArticlesEedit

Scots English Comments
a a
aa all -AA for English an aulder Scots -ALL.
ae only (one) ae disna cover aa the uisses o “only” in English. Tho a Scots “anelie” is heard, the word an its uiss is thocht bi maist ti be an invasive English form, a kennin fremmit ti Scots eidiom
ain own
an an
ane one see note on the gremmar o ane vs. wan
anither another
auld old
baith both
ben inside, etc.
big big
close close
different different
eneuch enough
faur far
few few
first first
guid good
hard hard
heich high EI afore the gutteral CH soond - cp. dreich; ct. beech.
hie high
hindmaist last
ilka each, every
important important
ither other
iverie every
landwart (rural)
lang long
late late
left left
last last the form lest seems ti be juist verbal, no adjectival
little little
ma / my my for some spaekers, ma is the unemphatic, my the emphatic; for ithers ma is uised baith weys
mair more
maist most
muckle big, large
nae no
nearhaun close
new new
nummer number
puckle few
rael real
richt right
saicont second
same same
sic such
smaa small -AA for English an aulder Scots -ALL.
the the
twa-three few
wan one
wee little, small
weel well EE correspondin ti English E, for readabeility.
wheen many whiles, less commonly, fowk uises this ti mean few
white white
young young

Conjunctions, Adverbs an PreposeitionsEedit

Scots English Comments
-na (n't)
(a)cause because
aamaist almost
ablo below
aboot about
abuin above
aff off
afore before
aften often
again again
ahint behind (after) juist in some idioms; efter for after maistlie
aince once
alang along
an and
an aa also see entry ablo at forbye
anent concerning
aroon(d) around
as as
at at
athoot without wioot is heard an aa, but athoot seemed the better selection for this leet, sib ti a nummer o Scots words o this type aa stertin wi an “a”.
atween between
awa away
aye always, still
but but
by, bi by By in the sense o “past”, walking past a door = walkin by a door. Bi in aa ither senses an uisses.
doun down
e'en even
efter after
for for
forbye also forbye is uised at the end o phrases, an micht cairie the English senses “as well” or “into the bargain” or “besides” - but canna be uised aa the weys also micht be uised in English. “Alsae” is heard, but isna that common, an tends tae be a kynd o Trojan horse for English syntax an cliché forbye.
fae, frae from suggestit at frae is better for general uiss as "r" is whiles soondit
gey an very
gif, if if
gin if
gin until, before,when, by the time that
here here
in in
inti into
intil into gey aften uised as intil’t at the end o phrases
iver ever ivver micht be mair logical bi consonant rules, but v’s disna normally dooble cause thay micht leuk like w’s syne
juist just UI phoneme: variously soondit joost / jist / jeest different airts
like, lik like the lik form aften intrudes as an unemphatic - the Comatee haesna generally recommendit uiss o unemphatic forms ootby some pronouns, but this is a gey common ane
mibbie maybe
muckle much
naur near the form naur mibbie isna aa that common some airts, whaur fowk juist says near, an is whiles soondit as nar. Naur is preferred, permittin the nar pronunciation aesier nor the ither wey roon.
na no Better form for non-regional uiss nor naw.
neist next
niver never Neever is heard, no sae commonly
no not Better form for non-regional uiss nor nae.
nor than
nou now
o of
oot out
oot ower over
or or
or until, before
ower over; too better nor owre, at tends ti gie smaa wecht ti the disyllabic pronunciation
sae so
siccan such
tae too
than then
thegither together
thonder there
throu through
til, ti to nae simple wey o sayin whan ti uise ti an whan til: this varies frae airt ti airt
till until
unner under Under is uised an aa, but it wis conseidered the “d” is mair aften elidit than itherweys in words o this ilk like thunner, hunner etc
up up
verra very
while while
whiles sometimes
wi with
yet still eidiomatic uise o yet in Scots differs frae idiomatic uise o still in English; e.g.: he's still sleeping = he's sleepin yet
yont along

Waek VerbsEedit

Infin + Past Endin English Comments
add -it add
answer -t answer
ask -ed, aks -t ask
awn -ed own
birl -t turn
caa -d call
cairie, cairiet carry
chynge -d change
clype, clypit tell in the sense o tellin on a bodie, informin against
cry -ed (cried) call
cut -tit cut
daff -t play
daunder -t wander
eik -it add
ettle, ettelt try
flit -tit move
follae -d follow
gar -t cause
gie -d give pp gien
growe -d grow pp growen
help -it help
jee ‘d move in parteicular senses o move, ithergates muve. Verbs endin wi dooble ee haes ti uise an apostrophe ti evyte triple e in the past tense.
keep -it keep
ken -t know
kep -pit catch
kythe -d seem
lairn -t learn
lest -it last but the idiomatic adjective is last, same as English
leuk -it look
leive -d live
muve -d move
need -it need
open -t open
play -ed play the form pley / pleyed is mibbie ower local ti recommend for general uiss.
pree ‘d try, taste, sample
prieve -d try, taste, sample
pruve -d prove past participle pruven
repone -d reply gey leiterary Scots
screive -d write
shaw -ed show
sneck -it latch
sned -dit sned, cut
speir -ed ask
spell -t spell
stap -pit stop, stuff
start -it/stert-it start
steek -it shut
stell -t place
stey -d (in / at) live in the sense o dwell (in / at)
stop -pit stop, halt In sense o Eng. halt.
study, studied study
talk -ed talk micht expect talkit, but we didna think it aften kythes, likely cause uise o the verb spaek is commoner in Scots
tell -t tell
traivel -t walk Final -EL efter V.
try -ed (or: tried) try
turn -t turn
tyne, pt/pp tint lose, miss
uise -d use
walk -it walk
want -it want
watch -t watch

Strang an Irregular VerbsEedit

Verb (Infin; Past;

Past Participle.)

English Comments
begin begin
begoud began
begun begun
bide live, reside
bade lived
bidden lived Also a waek pt an pp - bidit.
come come
cam came
come come (pp)
aet eat
ett ate
aeten / etten eaten
fin(nd) find
fan(nd) found (pt)
fun(nd) found (pp)
gang, gae go
gaun, gaein going
gaed went
gaen gone
git get
gat got (pt)
gotten get (pp)
lea(ve) leave
left left (pt, pp)
lat let
luit let (pt)
latten let (pp)
mak make
made made (pt, pp) Also a weak pt and pp - makkit.
pit put
pat put (pt)
pitten put (pp)
read read
read read (pt)
rin run
ran ran
run run (pp)
say say
sayed said
see see
saw saw
seen seen
set set (p, pt, pp)
spaek speak reversin the -ea- digraph ti merk the fact at in Scots this verb is variously soondit as speak, spake, spik
spak spoke Maistlie ae wey soondit
spoken spoken
tak take
teuk took
taen taken
think think
thocht thought (pt, pp)
win win, gain, etc.
wan won
wun won
work work
wrocht worked (pt, pp)
write write
wrat(e) wrote
written written

Frequent an Auxiliary VerbsEedit

Verb Negative English Comments
be be
am amna am
is isna is
ar arna are
wis wisna was
war warna were
been been
dae dinna do
dis disna does
did didna did
duin done
div divna do As auxiliary only. Ither tenses like dae.
hae haena have
haes haesna has
haed haedna had
haen had (past participle)
hiv hivna have Ither tenses like hae.
can canna can, may
cuid cuidna could exception ti general rules on uiss o -ui- phoneme
micht michtna may, might
maun maunna must
shuid shuidna should exception ti general rules on uiss o -ui- phoneme, soud in some airts whaur the "s" isna aspiratit
will winna will
wad wadna would
dow downa be able
docht dochtna was able

Personal PronounsEedit

Person Normal Informal Only English Comments
Emphatic Unemphatic Emphatic Unemphatic
Singular
1 I, A I Baith permissible, mibbie no wyce ti uise baith in the same text
me me
ma or my ma my
mine(s) mine
2 you ye youse you
your yer your
yours yours
3 he he
him him
his his
she she
her hur her
hers hurs hers
hit it it emphatic form rarer
hits its its emphatic form rarer
Plural
1 we we
us hiz, huz us
oor oor / wir wir our
2 you ye yiz, youse you
your yer your
yours yours
3 thay they
thaim them them
thair thur their

The LaveEedit

Basic Interrogatives.
Scots English Comments
wha who
whase whose
whaur where
whit what, which
whan when
why why
whit wey, whit for why, how for whit raeson
hou how in whit mainer
Relatives
Scots English Comments
at, that that, which, who
Demonstratives
Scots English Comments
here here
thare there
this this, these
that that, those
thir these
thae those
yon that, those
thon that, those

ReferencesEedit

  1. Mensefu Scots Spellin for ti lairn an be lairnit. Report & Recommends o the Scots Spellin Comatee (PDF). scotslanguage.com (Report). pp. 23–34. Retrieved 9 September 2020.