Vertebrates (/ˈvɛrtɘbrets/) is ainimals that is members o the subphylum Vertebrata /-ɑː/ (chordates wi rigbanes). Vertebrates include the owerwhelmin majority o the phylum Chordata, wi aboot 64,000 species descreivit the nou.[2] Vertebrates include the jawless fish, bane fish, sharks an rays, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, an birds. Extant vertebrates range in size frae the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as wee as 7.7 mm (0.3 inch), tae the blue whaul, at up tae 33 m (110 ft). Vertebrates mak up aboot 4% o aw descreivit ainimal species; the rest is invertebrates, that lack rigbanes.

Temporal range:
Individual organisms frae ilka main vertebrate group. Clockwise, stairtin frae tap left:

Fire Salamander, Saltwatter Crocodile, Soothren Cassowary, Black-an-rufous Giant Elephant Shrew, Ocean Sunfish

Scientific classification e
Kinrick: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Olfactores
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812
Simplified groopin (see text)

The vertebrates tradeetionally include the hagfish, that dinnae hae proper vertebrae, tho thair closest livin relatives, the lampreys, dae hae vertebrae.[3] Hagfish dae, houiver, possess a cranium. For this raison, the vertebrate subphylum is whiles referred tae as "Craniata" whan discussin morphologie. Molecular analysis syne 1992 haes suggestit that the hagfish is maist closely relatit tae lampreys,[4] an sae vertebrates is in a monophyletic sense. Ithers consider them a sister group o vertebrates in the common taxon o Craniata.[5]


  1. Shu; et al. (4 November 1999). "Lower Cambrian vertebrates from south China". Nature. 402 (6757): 42–46. Bibcode:1999Natur.402...42S. doi:10.1038/46965. Cite uses deprecated parameter |displayauthors= (help)
  2. Jonathan E.M. Baillie; et al. (2004). "A Global Species Assessment". World Conservation Union. Archived frae the original on 9 Mairch 2014. Retrieved 12 Julie 2013. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  3. Kuraku; Hoshiyama, D; Katoh, K; Suga, H; Miyata, T; et al. (December 1999). "Monophyly of Lampreys and Hagfishes Supported by Nuclear DNA–Coded Genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 49 (6): 729–35. doi:10.1007/PL00006595. PMID 10594174. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  4. Stock, David (7). "Evidence from 18S ribosomal RNA sequences that lampreys and hagfish form a natural group". Science. 257 (5071): 787–9. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..787S. doi:10.1126/science.1496398. PMID 1496398. Retrieved 22 November 2011. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Check date values in: |date= and |year= / |date= mismatch (help)
  5. Nicholls, Henry (10 September 2009). "Mouth to Mouth". Nature. 461 (7261): 164–166. doi:10.1038/461164a. PMID 19741680.

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