Subdivisions of the Quaternary System
Age (Ma)
Quaternary Holocene 0.0117–0
Pleistocene Tarantian 0.126–0.0117
Ionian 0.781–0.126
Calabrian 1.80–0.781
Gelasian 2.58–1.80
Neogene Pliocene Piacenzian aulder
In Europe an North Americae, the Holocene is subdividit intae Preboreal, Boreal, Atlantic, Subboreal, an Subatlantic stages o the Blytt–Sernander time scale. Thare are mony regional subdiveesions for the Upper or Late Pleistocene; uisually these represent locally recognised cauld (glacial) an wairm (interglacial) periods. The last glacial period ends wi the cauld Younger Dryas substage.

The Holocene, accordin tae current scienteefic consensus, is the geological epoch that began efter the Pleistocene[1] at approximately 11,700 year afore present.[2]


  1. "International Stratigraphic Chart" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  2. Walker, M.; Johnsen, S.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Popp, T.; Steffensen, J.-P.; Gibbard, P.; Hoek, W.; Lowe, J.; Andrews, J.; Bjo; Cwynar, L. C.; Hughen, K.; Kershaw, P.; Kromer, B.; Litt, T.; Lowe, D. J.; Nakagawa, T.; Newnham, R.; Schwander, J. (2009). "Formal definition and dating of the GSSP (Global Stratotype Section and Point) for the base of the Holocene using the Greenland NGRIP ice core, and selected auxiliary records" (PDF). J. Quaternary Sci. 24: 3–17. doi:10.1002/jqs.1227.