Sukhumi (Abkhaz: Аҟәа, Aqwa; Georgie: სოხუმი, Sokhumi; Roushie: Сухум or Сухуми, Sukhum or Sukhumi) is the caipital o Abkhazie, a disputit region on the Black Sea coast. The ceety suffered hivily durin the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict in the early 1990s.


სოხუმი, Аҟәа

Sokhumi, Akwa
Official seal of Sukhumi
location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
location of Sukhumi within Abkhazia
Sukhumi is located in Georgia (country)
Location o Sukhumi in Georgie
Coordinates: 43°00′12″N 41°00′55″E / 43.00333°N 41.01528°E / 43.00333; 41.01528
Kintra Georgie
Partially recognized country Abkhazie[1]
 • MayorAlias Labakhua[2]
Highest elevation
140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation
5 m (16 ft)
 • Total62,914
Time zoneUTC+4 (MSK)
Area code(s)+7 840 22x-xx-xx

Namin eedit

In Abkhaz, the ceety is kent as Аҟәа (Aqwa) which accordin tae native tradeetion signifies water.[3]

In Georgian, the ceety is kent as სოხუმი (Sokhumi) or აყუ (Aqu),[4] in Megrelian as აყუჯიხა (Aqujikha),[5] an in Roushie as Сухум (Sukhum) or Сухуми (Sukhumi). The etymology o the form Sokhumi is disputit. The ceety wis earlier kent in Turkis as Suhum-Kale, which can be read tae mean 'watter-sand fortress'.[6][7] Alternatively, it haes been proposed that the ceety haed already afore been kent as Tskhumi in Georgian, an that aw thir forms (includin the Turkis) fynd thair oreegin herein. Tskhumi in turn then is derived frae the Svan leid wird for 'het'[8], or the Georgian wird for 'hornbeam tree'. The competin etymologies hae been uised as putative evidence in the argument ower the ethnicity o Sukhumi's historical indwallers.

The endin -i in the abuin forms represents the Georgian nominative-suffix. The toun wis initially offeecially describit in Roushie as Сухум (Sukhum), till 16 August 1936 when this wis chynged tae Сухуми (Sukhumi). This remained sae till 4 December 1992, when the Supreme Cooncil o Abkhazie restored the "oreeginal" version[9], that wis approved in Roushie in hairst 2008[10], even tho Сухуми is an aa still bein uised.

In Inglis, the maist common form the day is Sukhumi, awtho Sokhumi is uised as well bi some soorces, includin Encyclopædia Britannica[11] an MSN Encarta.[12]

Historically, Sukhumi wis first cawed Διοσκουριάς (Dioskurias) bi the Greeks, then frae the time o Emperor o Rome Augustus onwards Σεβαστούπολις (Sebastopolis)[13] till it became Suhum-kail unner the Ottomans.

General information eedit

Sukhumi is locatit on a wide bay o the eastren coast o the Black Sea an serves as a port, rail junction an a holiday resort. It is kent for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-watter spas an semitropical climate. Sukhumi is an aa an important air link for Abkhazie as the Sukhumi Dranda Airport is locatit nearbi the ceety. Sukhumi contains a nummer o sma-tae-medium size hotels servin chiefly the Roushie tourists. Sukhumi botanical garden wis established in 1840, ane o the auldest botanical gardens in the Caucasus.

The ceety haes a nummer o research institutes, the Abkhazian State University an the Sukhumi Branch o the Tbilisi State University (currently functionin in Tbilisi). In Soviet times, it contained a renouned ape breedin station. Frae 1945 tae 1954 the ceety's electron pheesics laboratory wis involved in the Soviet program tae develop nuclear wappens.

The ceety is a member o the International Black Sea Club.[14]

Twin touns - sister ceeties eedit

References eedit

  1. Abkhazie is the subjeck o a territorial dispute atween the Republic o Abkhazie an the Republic o Georgie. The Republic o Abkhazie declarit unthirldom on 23 Julie 1992, bit Georgie continues tae claim it as pairt o its ain sovereign territory. Abkhazie haes beein gien formal recognition as ae free state bi 7 oot o 193 Unitit Naitions memmer states (wi 1 later taen back).

  2. Алиас Лабахуа вступил в должность мэра столицы Archived 2012-10-25 at the Wayback Machine (Alias Labakhua takes office of the capital's mayor), 18.09.2007 (in Roushie)
  3. Colarusso, John. "More Pontic: Further Etymologies between Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian" (PDF). p. 54. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  4., p. 65
  5. Otar Kajaia, 2001–2004, Megrelian-Georgian Dictionary (entry aq'ujixa).
  6. Goltz, Thomas (2009) [2006]. "4. An Abkhazian Interlude". Georga Diary (Expanded ed.). Armonk, New York / London, England: M.E. Sharpe. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7656-2416-1.
  7. [1] (in Roushie)
  8. Room, A. (2005), Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, p. 361
  9. [2] Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine (in Roushie)
  10. Абхазию и Южную Осетию на картах в РФ выкрасят в "негрузинские" цвета
  11. "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 6, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [3] Archived 2007-12-26 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encarta. Retrieved November 6, 2006: [4] Archived 2007-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Hewitt, George (1998) The Abkhazians: a handbook St. Martin's Press, New York, p. 62, ISBN 0-312-21975-X
  14. International Black Sea Club, members Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine
  15. "Podolsk sister cities". Retrieved 4 Julie 2010.