Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (15 December 37 – 9 Juin 68), born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, an commonly kent as Nero, wis Roman Emperor frae 54 tae 68. He wis the last emperor o the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero wis adoptit bi his great-uncle Claudius tae acome his heir an successor. He succeedit tae the throne in 54 followin Claudius' daith.
|5t Emperor o the Roman Empire|
|Ring||13 October 54 – 9 Juin 68|
15 December 37|
9 Juin 68 (aged 30)|
|Buirial||Mausoleum o the Domitii Ahenobarbi, Pincian Hill, Roum|
|Faither||Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus|
|Mither||Agrippina the Younger|
Durin his reign, Nero focused muckle o his attention on diplomacy, tred, an increasin the cultural caipital o the empire. He ordered the biggin o theatres an promotit athletic gemmes. His reign includit a successfu war an negotiatit peace wi the Parthian Empire, the suppression o a revolt in Breetain, an the beginnin o the First Roman–Jewish War.
In 64, maist o Rome wis destroyed in the Great Fire o Rome. In 68, the rebellion o Vindex in Gaul an later the acclamation o Galba in Hispania drove Nero frae the throne. Facin assassination, he committit suicide on 9 Juin 68.
He is an aw infamously kent as the emperor who "fiddled while Rome burned", an as an early persecutor o Christians. This view is based upon the main survivin soorces for Nero's reign - Tacitus, Suetonius an Cassius Dio. Few survivin soorces paint Nero in a favorable licht. Some soorces, tho, includin some mentioned abuin, portray him as an emperor who wis popular wi the common Auncient Romans, especially in the East.
The study o Nero is problematic as some modren heestorians quaisten the reliability o auncient soorces whan reportin on Nero's tyrannical acts.
See an aaEedit
- Nero's regal name has an equivalent meanin in Scots as "Commander Nero Claudius, Son o the Divine Claudius, the Emperor, Conqueror o the Germans".
- Also called 'Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus
- Nero's birth day is listit in Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life o Nero 6. His daith day is uncertain, though, perhaps because Galba wis declared emperor afore Nero lived. A Juin 9t daith day comes frae Jerome, Chronicle, which leets Nero's rule as 13 years, 7 months an 28 days. Cassius Dio, Roman History LXII.3 and Josephus, War o the Jews IV, say Nero's rule was 13 years, 8 months which woud be Juin 11t.
- Suetonius states that Nero committit suicide in The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 49; Sulpicius Severus, wha possibly uised Tacitus' lost fragments as a soorce, reports that it wis uncertain whether Nero committit suicide, Sulpicius Severus, Chronica II.29, also see T.D. Barnes, "The Fragments of Tacitus' Histories", Classical Philology (1977), p. 228.
- Galba criticised Nero's luxuria, baith his public an private excessive spendin, durin rebellion, Tacitus, Annals I.16; Kragelund, Patrick, "Nero's Luxuria, in Tacitus and in the Octavia", The Classical Quarterly, 2000, pp. 494–515.
- References tae Nero's matricide appear in the Sibylline Oracles 5.490–520, Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales The Monk's Tale, and William Shakespeare's Hamlet 3.ii.
- Nero wis no a fiddle player, but a lyre player (the fiddle wis no yet invented). Suetonius states Nero played the lyre while Rome burned, see Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 38; For a detailed explanation of this transition see M.F. Gyles "Nero Fiddled while Rome Burned", The Classical Journal (1948), pp. 211–217 .
- These include Lucan's Civil War, Seneca the Younger's On Mercy and Dio Chrysostom's Discourses along with various Roman coins and inscriptions.
- Tacitus, Histories I.4, I.5, I.13, II.8; Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Nero 57, Life of Otho 7, Life of Vitellius 11; Philostratus II, The Life of Apollonius 5.41; Dio Chrysostom, Discourse XXI, On Beauty.
- On fire and Christian persecution, see F.W. Clayton, "Tacitus and Christian Persecution", The Classical Quarterly, pp. 81–85; B.W. Henderson, Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero, p. 437; On general bias against Nero, see Edward Champlin, Nero, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003, pp. 36–52 (ISBN 0-674-01192-9
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