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A fungus (/ˈfʌŋɡəs/; plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is a member o a lairge group o eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as baurms an moulds, as well as the mair familiar mushruims. These organisms are clessifee'd as a kinrick, Fungi, which is separate frae plants, animals, protists an bacteria. Ane major difference is that fungal cells hae cell walls that contain chitin, unlik the cell waws o plants an some protists, which contain cellulose, an unlik the cell waws o bacteria. These an ither differences shaw that the fungi furm a single group o relatit organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common auncestor (is a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct frae the structurally seemilar myxomycetes (slime moulds) an oomycetes (watter moulds). The discipline o biology devotit tae the study o fungi is kent as mycology (frae the Greek μύκης, mukēs, meanin "fungus"). Mycology haes eften been regardit as a branch o botany, even tho it is a separate kinrick in biological taxonomy. Genetic studies hae shawn that fungi are mair closely relatit tae ainimals than tae plants.

Fungi
Temporal range: Early DevonianPresent 410–0 Ma
Fungi collage.jpg
Clockwise frae tap left:
Scientific classification e
(unranked): Unikonta
(unranked): Obazoa
(unranked): Opisthokonta
Kinrick: Fungi
(L.) R.T.Moore[1]
Subkingdoms/Phyla/Subphyla[2]
Blastocladiomycota
Chytridiomycota
Glomeromycota
Microsporidia
Neocallimastigomycota

Dikarya (inc. Deuteromycota)

Ascomycota
Pezizomycotina
Saccharomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
Basidiomycota
Agaricomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
Ustilaginomycotina

Subphyla incertae sedis

Entomophthoromycotina
Kickxellomycotina
Mucoromycotina
Zoopagomycotina

ReferencesEedit

  1. Moore RT (1980). "Taxonomic proposals for the classification of marine yeasts and other yeast-like fungi including the smuts". Botanica Marina. 23: 361–373. 
  2. The clessification seestem presentit here is based on the 2007 phylogenetic study bi Hibbett et al.
  3.  i/ˈfʌn/ or  i/ˈfʌŋɡ/
  4. "Fungus". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2011-02-26.