Frederick the Great

Frederick II (German: Friedrich; 24 Januar 1712 – 17 August 1786) wis the third Hohenzollern keeng, ringin ower the Kinrick o Proushie frae 1740 till 1786.[1] His maist signeeficant accomplishments in his ring includit his militar veectories, his reorganisation o Proushie airmies, his patronage o the airts an the Enlichtment an his feenal success against great odds in the Seiven Years' War. Frederick wis the last Hohenzollern monarch teetled Keeng in Proushie an declared himsel Keeng o Proushie efter achievin sovereignty ower maist historically Proushie launds in 1772. Proushie haed greatly increased its territories an becam a leadin militar pouer in Europe unner his rule. He becam kent as Frederick the Great (German: Friedrich der Große) an wis nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("The Auld Fritz") bi the Proushie fowk an eventually the rest o Germany.[2]

Frederick II
Friedrich Zweite Alt.jpg
Portrait o Keeng Frederick II bi Anton Graff, pentit in 1781
Keeng o Proushie
Elector o Brandenburg
Ring31 Mey 1740 – 17 August 1786
PredecessorFrederick William I
SuccessorFrederick William II
Chief Meenister
Born24 Januar 1712(1712-01-24)
Berlin, Proushie
Dee'd17 August 1786(1786-08-17) (aged 74)
Potsdam, Proushie
BuirialSanssouci, Potsdam
SpouseElisabeth Christine o Brunswick-Bevern
HooseHoose o Hohenzollern
FaitherFrederick William I o Proushie
MitherSophia Dorothea o Hanover
ReleegionOffeecially Calvinist, privately Deist

In his youth, Frederick wis mair interestit in muisic an filosofie nor the airt o war. Nanetheless, upon ascendin tae the Proushie throne he attacked Austrick an claimed Silesie in the Silesie Wars, winnin militar acclaim for himsel an Proushie. Taewart the end o his ring, Frederick pheesically connectit maist o his kinrick bi acquirin Pols territories in the First Pairteetion o Poland. He wis an influential militar theorist that's analysis emerged frae his extensive personal battlefield experience an kivert issues o strategy, tactics, mobeelity an logeestics.

Conseederin himsel "the first servant o the state",[3] Frederick wis a proponent o enlichtened absolutism. He modrenised the Proushie bureaucracy an ceevil service an pursued releegious policies ootthrou his kinrick that ranged frae tolerance tae segregation.[4] He reformed the judeecial seestem an made it possible for men nae o noble status tae acome juidges an senior bureaucrats. Frederick encouraged immigrants o various naitionalities an faiths tae come tae Proushie, awtho he enactit oppressive meisurs against Pols Catholic subjects in Wast Proushie. Frederick supportit airts an filosofers he favoured as weel as allouin complete freedom o the press an leeteratur.[5] Maist modren biografers gree that Frederick wis primarily homosexual, an that his sexual orientaition wis central tae his life. Frederick is buiried at his favourite residence, Sanssouci in Potsdam. Acause he dee'd bairnless, Frederick wis succeedit by his neffae Frederick William II.

Nearly aw 19t-century German historians made Frederick intae a romantic model o a glorifee'd warrior, praisin his leadership, admeenistrative efficiency, devotion tae duty an success in biggin up Proushie tae a great pouer in Europe. Historian Leopold von Ranke wis unstintin in his praise o Frederick's "heroic life, inspired bi great ideas, filled wi feats o airms ... immortalised bi the raisin o the Proushi state tae the rank o a pouer". Johann Gustav Droysen wis even mair extollin.[6] Frederick remeened an admired historical feegur throu Germany's defeat in Warld War I. The Nazis glorifee'd him as a great German leader pre-feegurin Adolf Hitler, that personally eedoleezed him.[7]

Associations wi him became far less favourable efter the faw o the Nazis, lairgely due tae his status as ane o thair seembols.[8] Houiver, historians in the 21st century nou again view Frederick as ane o the finest generals o the 18t century, ane o the maist enlichtened monarchs o his age an a heichly successfu an capable leader that biggit the foondation for the Kinrick o Proushie tae acome a great pouer that wad contest the Austrick Habsburgs for leadership amang the German states.

Teetles an stylesEedit

  • 24 Januar 1712 – 31 Mey 1740 His Ryal Highness The Croun Prince o Proushie.
  • 31 Mey 1740 – 19 Februar 1772His Majesty The Keeng in Proushie.
  • 19 Februar 1772 – 17 August 1786 His Majesty The Keeng o Proushie.

ReferencesEedit

  1. Frederick wis the third an last "Keeng in Proushie"; beginnin in 1772 he uised the teetle "Keeng o Proushie".
  2. Richard 1913, p. 383.
  3. see Antimachiavel. In: "Œuvres". Vol. 8, p. 66, an "Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la maison de Brandenbourg". In: "Œuvres", Vol. 1, p. 123.
  4. Stanislaw Salmonowicz (1981). "Was Frederick the Great an Enlightened Absolute Ruler?". Polish Western Affairs. 22 (1): 56–69.
  5. Mitford 2013, p. 59.
  6. Gooch 1947, p. 346.
  7. Hoffmann, Hilmar (1997). The Triumph of Propaganda: Film and National Socialism, 1933–1945, Volume 1. Berghahn Books. p. 49. ISBN 9781571811226.
  8. Jürgen Angelow (2004). "Kontexte ungleicher Deutung". Zeitschrift für Religions- und Geistesgeschichte. 56 (2): 136–151. doi:10.1163/157007304323015694. JSTOR 23898669.