The Euphrates (Listeni/juːˈfrtz/; Arabic: الفرات‎: al-Furāt, Hebrew: פרת‎‎: Prat, Turkis: Fırat, Kurdish: Firat‎) is the langest an ane o the maist historically important rivers o Wastren Asie. Thegither wi the Tigris, it is ane o the twa definin rivers o Mesopotamie. Oreeginatin in eastren Turkey, the Euphrates flows through Sirie an Iraq tae join the Tigris in the Shatt al-Arab, which empties intae the Persie Gulf.

The Euphrates near Halabiye (Syria); the archaeological steid Zalabiye can be seen in the backgrund on the left bank.
Map o the combined Tigris–Euphrates drainage basin (in yellae)
Main sourceMurat Su, Turkey
3,520 m (11,550 ft)
2nt sourceKara Su, Turkey
3,290 m (10,790 ft)
River moothShatt al-Arab
Al-Qurnah, Basra Govrenorate, Iraq
31°0′18″N 47°26′31″E / 31.00500°N 47.44194°E / 31.00500; 47.44194Coordinates: 31°0′18″N 47°26′31″E / 31.00500°N 47.44194°E / 31.00500; 47.44194
Basin size500,000 km2 (190,000 sq mi)approx.
Pheesical chairacteristics
Lenth2,800 km (1,700 mi)approx.
  • Location:
  • Minimum rate:
    58 m3/s (2,000 cu ft/s)
  • Average rate:
    356 m3/s (12,600 cu ft/s)
  • Maximum rate:
    2,514 m3/s (88,800 cu ft/s)

Etymology eedit

The earliest references tae the Euphrates come frae cuneiform texts foond in Shuruppak an pre-Sargonic Nippur in soothren Iraq an date tae the mid-third millennium BCE. In these texts, written in Sumerie, the Euphrates appears as Buranuna (logographic: UD.KIB.NUN). The name coud an aw be written KIB.NUN.(NA) or dKIB.NUN, wi the prefix "d" indicatin that the river wis deified. In Sumerie, the name o the ceety o Sippar in modren-day Iraq wis an aw a written UD.KIB.NUN, indicatin a historically strang relationship atween the ceety an the river. In Akkadian, the Euphrates wis cried Purattu.[1] The modren spellin o the Euphrates derives frae the Auld Persie Ufrātu via Middle Persie Frat intae Turkis Fırat. The Persie Ufrātu (meanin the guid) is an aw the source o the Greek spellin Εὐφράτης (Euphrates).[2]

See an aw eedit

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Freemit airtins eedit