third planet closest tae the Sun in the Solar Seestem
(Reguidit frae Earth)

Yird, itherwise kent as the Warld or the Globe, is the third planet frae the Sun an the anerly object in the universe kent tae herbour life. It is the densest planet in the Solar Seestem an the lairgest o the fower terrestrial planets.

Yird 🜨
The Earth seen from Apollo 17.jpg
The Blue Marble photograph o Yird, taken during the Apollo 17 lunar mission in 1972
Orbital chairactereestics
Epoch J2000[n 1]
Aphelion152100000 km[n 2]
(94500000 mi; 1.017 AU)
Perihelion147095000 km[n 2]
(91401000 mi; 0.98327 AU)
149598023 km[1]
(92955902 mi; 1.00000102 AU)
365.256363004 d[2]
(1.00001742096 yr)
29.78 km/s[3]
(107200 km/h; 66600 mph)
−11.26064°[3] tae J2000 ecliptic
Pheesical chairacteristics
Mean radius
6371.0 km (3958.8 mi)[6]
Equatorial radius
6378.1 km (3963.2 mi)[7][8]
Polar radius
6356.8 km (3949.9 mi)[9]
1/298.257222101 (ETRS89)
  • 510072000 km2 (196940000 sq mi)[13][14][n 4]
  • 148940000 km2 laund (57510000 sq mi; 29.2%)
  • 361132000 km2 watter (139434000 sq mi; 70.8%)
Vollum1.08321×1012 km3 (2.59876×1011 cu mi)[3]
Mass5.97237×1024 kg (1.31668×1025 lb)[15]
(3.0×10−6 M)
Mean density
5.514 g/cm3 (0.1992 lb/cu in)[3]
9.807 m/s2 (g; 32.18 ft/s2)[16]
11.186 km/s[3]
(40270 km/h; 25020 mph)
0.99726968 d[18]
(23h 56m 4.100s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
0.4651 km/s[19]
(1674.4 km/h; 1040.4 mph)
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 184 K[20] 288 K[21] 330 K[22]
Celsius −89.2 °C 15 °C 56.7 °C
Fahrenheit −128.5 °F 59 °F 134 °F
Surface pressur
101.325 kPa (at MSL)
Composeetion bi vollum

Accordin tae radiometric datin an ither soorces o evidence, Yird formed aboot 4.54 billion years aby.[24][25][26] Yird's gravity interacts wi ither objects in space, especially the Sun an the Muin, Yird's anerly naitural satellite. In ane orbit aroond the Sun, Yird rotates aboot its axis ower 365 times; sicweys, an Yird year is aboot 365.26 days lang.[n 5] Yird's axis o rotation is tilted, producin saisonal variations on the planet's surface.[27] The gravitational interaction atween the Yird an Muin causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Yird's orientation on its axis, an gradually slaws its rotation.[28]

Yird's lithosphere is dividit intae several rigid tectonic plates that migrate athort the surface ower periods o mony millions o years. Aboot 71% o Yird's surface is covered wi watter, maistly bi its oceans.[29] The remeenin 29% is laund conseestin o continents an islands that thegither hae mony lochs, rivers an ither soorces o watter that contreibute tae the hydrosphere. The majority o Yird's polar regions are covered in ice, includin the Antarctic ice sheet an the sea ice o the Arctic ice pack. Yird's interior remeens active wi a solit airn inner core, a liquid ooter core that generates the Yird's magnetic field, an a convectin mantle that drives plate tectonics.

Accordin tae scientists, within the first billion year o Yird's history, life appeared in the oceans an began tae affect the Yird's atmosphere an surface, leadin tae the proliferation o aerobic an anaerobic organisms. Some geological evidence indicates that life mey hae arisen as muckle as 4.1 billion year aby. Syne then, the combination o Yird's distance frae the Sun, pheesical properties, an geological history hae allaed life tae evolve an thrive.[30][31] In the history o the Yird, biodiversity haes gane throu lang periods o expansion, occasionally punctuatit bi mass extinction events. Ower 99% o aw species[32] that ever leeved on Yird are extinct.[33][34] Estimates o the nummer o species on Yird theday vary widely;[35][36][37] maist species hae nae been descrived.[38] Ower 7.4 billion humans leeve on Yird an depend on its biosphere an meenerals for thair survival. Humans hae developed diverse societies an cultursally, the warld haes aboot 200 sovereign states.

See an awEedit


  1. Aw astronomical quantities vary, baith secularly an periodically. The quantities gien are the values at the instant J2000.0 o the secular variation, ignorin aw periodic variations.
  2. a b aphelion = a × (1 + e); perihelion = a × (1 – e), whaur a is the semi-major axis an e is the eccentricity. The difference atween Yird's perihelion an aphelion is 5 million kilometres.
  3. As o Julie 5, 2016, the Unitit States Strategic Command tracked a tot o 17,729 airtifeecial objects, maistly debris. See: "Orbital Debris Quarterly News" (PDF). Vol. 20 no. 3. NASA. Julie 2016. p. 8. Retrieved 10 October 2016. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  4. Due tae naitural fluctuations, ambiguities surroondin ice shelfs, an mappin conventions for vertical datums, exact values for laund an ocean coverage are nae meaninfu. Based on data frae the Vector Map an Global Landcover Archived 2015-03-26 at the Wayback Machine datasets, extreme values for coverage o lochs an streams are 0.6% an 1.0% o Yird's surface. The ice shields o Antarcticae an Greenland are coontit as land, even tho much o the rock that supports them lies ablo sea level.
  5. The nummer o solar days is ane less nor the nummer o sidereal days acause the orbital motion o Yird aroond the Sun causes ane addeetional revolution o the planet aboot its axis.


  1. a b Simon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. (Februar 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
  2. a b Staff (7 August 2007). "Useful Constants". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. Retrieved 23 September 2008.
  3. a b c d e f g h i Williams, David R. (1 September 2004). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  4. Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 294. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2011.
  5. "UCS Satellite Database". Nuclear Weapons & Global Security. Union of Concerned Scientists. 11 August 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  6. Various (2000). David R. Lide (ed.). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (81st ed.). CRC. ISBN 0-8493-0481-4.
  7. "Selected Astronomical Constants, 2011". The Astronomical Almanac. Archived frae the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 25 Februar 2011.
  8. a b World Geodetic System (WGS-84). Available online Archived 2020-03-11 at the Wayback Machine frae National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
  9. Cazenave, Anny (1995). "Geoid, Topography and Distribution of Landforms" (PDF). In Ahrens, Thomas J (ed.). Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0-87590-851-9. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 3 August 2008.
  10. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Working Group (2004). "General Definitions and Numerical Standards" (PDF). In McCarthy, Dennis D.; Petit, Gérard (eds.). IERS Conventions (2003) (PDF). IERS Technical Note No. 32. Frankfurt am Main: Verlag des Bundesamts für Kartographie und Geodäsie. p. 12. ISBN 3-89888-884-3. Retrieved 29 Apryle 2016.
  11. Humerfelt, Sigurd (26 October 2010). "How WGS 84 defines Earth". Archived frae the original on 24 Apryle 2011. Retrieved 29 Apryle 2011.
  12. Earth's circumference is almost exactly 40,000 km because the metre was calibrated on this measurement—more specifically, 1/10-millionth of the distance between the poles and the equator.
  13. Pidwirny, Michael (2 Februar 2006). "Surface area of our planet covered by oceans and continents.(Table 8o-1)". University of British Columbia, Okanagan. Retrieved 26 November 2007. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. Staff (24 Julie 2008). "World". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived frae the original on 5 Januar 2010. Retrieved 5 August 2008.
  15. Luzum, Brian; Capitaine, Nicole; Fienga, Agnès; Folkner, William; Fukushima, Toshio; et al. (August 2011). "The IAU 2009 system of astronomical constants: The report of the IAU working group on numerical standards for Fundamental Astronomy". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 110 (4): 293–304. Bibcode:2011CeMDA.110..293L. doi:10.1007/s10569-011-9352-4.
  16. The international system of units (SI) (PDF) (2008 ed.). United States Department of Commerce, NIST Special Publication 330. p. 52. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 3 Juin 2016. Retrieved 6 Mey 2017.
  17. Williams, James G. (1994). "Contributions to the Earth's obliquity rate, precession, and nutation". The Astronomical Journal. 108: 711. Bibcode:1994AJ....108..711W. doi:10.1086/117108. ISSN 0004-6256.
  18. Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 296. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  19. Arthur N. Cox, ed. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (4th ed.). New York: AIP Press. p. 244. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  20. "World: Lowest Temperature". WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive (in Inglis). Arizona State University. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  21. Kinver, Mark (10 December 2009). "Global average temperature may hit record level in 2010". BBC Online. Retrieved 22 Apryle 2010.
  22. "World: Highest Temperature". WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive (in Inglis). Arizona State University. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  23. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (8 November 2016). "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide". Earth System Research Laboratory. Retrieved 3 December 2016.
  24. "Age of the Earth" (in Inglis). U.S. Geological Survey. 1997. Archived frae the original on 29 August 2020. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  25. Dalrymple, G. Brent (2001). "The age of the Earth in the twentieth century: a problem (mostly) solved". Special Publications, Geological Society of London. 190 (1): 205–221. Bibcode:2001GSLSP.190..205D. doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2001.190.01.14.
  26. Manhesa, Gérard; Allègre, Claude J.; Dupréa, Bernard & Hamelin, Bruno (1980). "Lead isotope study of basic-ultrabasic layered complexes: Speculations about the age of the earth and primitive mantle characteristics". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 47 (3): 370–382. Bibcode:1980E&PSL..47..370M. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(80)90024-2. Cite uses deprecated parameter |last-author-amp= (help)
  27. Yoder, Charles F. (1995). "Astrometric and Geodetic Properties of Earth and the Solar System" (PDF). In T. J. Ahrens (ed.). Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington: American Geophysical Union. p. 8. ISBN 0-87590-851-9.
  28. Laskar, J.; et al. (2004). "A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 428 (1): 261–85. Bibcode:2004A&A...428..261L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041335.
  29. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Ocean". NOAA.gov (in Inglis). Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  30. Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth". Excite. Yonkers, NY: Mindspark Interactive Network. Associated Press. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  31. Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; et al. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences. 112: 14518–21. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214518B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517557112. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 4664351. PMID 26483481. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015. Early edition, published online before print.
  32. Kunin, W.E.; Gaston, Kevin, eds. (31 December 1996). The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences. ISBN 978-0412633805. Retrieved 26 Mey 2015.
  33. Stearns, Beverly Peterson; Stearns, S. C.; Stearns, Stephen C. (1 August 2000). Watching, from the Edge of Extinction. Yale University Press. p. 1921. ISBN 978-0-300-08469-6. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  34. Novacek, Michael J. (8 November 2014). "Prehistory's Brilliant Future". New York Times. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  35. May, Robert M. (1988). "How many species are there on earth?". Science. 241 (4872): 1441–1449. Bibcode:1988Sci...241.1441M. doi:10.1126/science.241.4872.1441. PMID 17790039.
  36. Miller, G.; Spoolman, Scott (1 Januar 2012). "Biodiversity and Evolution". Environmental Science. Cengage Learning. p. 62. ISBN 1-133-70787-4. Retrieved 27 December 2014.
  37. Staff (2 Mey 2016). "Researchers find that Earth may be home to 1 trillion species". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 6 Mey 2016.
  38. Mora, C.; Tittensor, D.P.; Adl, S.; Simpson, A.G.; Worm, B. (23 August 2011). "How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean?". PLOS Biology. 9: e1001127. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127. PMC 3160336. PMID 21886479.