Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS FLS FZS[2] (/ˈdɑːrwɪn/;[5] 12 Februar 1809 – 19 Aprile 1882) wis an Inglis naituralist, geologist an biologist,[6] kent best fir his theory a evolution.[I] He wis thinkin aw species o life hae descendit ower time frae common ancestors.[7] Ats now kent as richt, aun a foundational concept fur scientists the day.

Charles Darwin

Darwin, c. 1854, whan he wis graithin On the Origin of Species tae be furthset [1]
BornCharles Robert Darwin
12 Februar 1809(1809-02-12)
The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Ingland
Dee'd19 Apryle 1882(1882-04-19) (aged 73)
Down House, Downe, Kent, Ingland
Kent forThe Voyage of the Beagle
On the Origin of Species
The Descent of Man
Hauf-marrae(s)Emma Wedgwood (m. 1839)
Scientific career
FieldsNaitural history, geology
InstitutionsTertiary eddication:
Varsity o Edinburgh Medical School (medicine, na degree)
Christ's College, Cambridge Bachelor o Airts (1831)
Master o Airts (1836)[4]
Professional institution:
Geological Society o Lunnon
Academic advisorsJohn Stevens Henslow
Adam Sedgwick
InfluencesCharles Lyell
Alexander von Humboldt
John Herschel
Thomas Malthus
InfluencedHooker, Huxley, Romanes, Haeckel, Lubbock
Signatur"Charles Darwin", wi the surname unnerlined bi a dounwart curve that mimics the curve o the ineetial "C"

Wurkin wi Alfred Russel Wallace, he forwart scientific theory that all species a life decended fae eachother. This sinderin paitern a evolution wis cried naitural selection. A'hings struggle fir existence is awfy similar tae artificial selection in selective breedin.[8]

Darwin is ane a the maist influential folk in human historie fir sure. Darwin furthset his theory o evolution wi compellin evidence in his 1859 beuk On the Origin of Species, owercomin scientific rejection o earlier concepts o transmutation o species.[9][10] Bi the 1870s, the scientific commonity an maist leart fowk war insense't wi the idea o evolution wis true. Houaniver, mony war mair taen wi competin explanations an it wis nae till efter the modren evolutionary synthesis o the 1930s tae the 1950s that braid concord wi keppit wi that naitural selection is the steidin evolution is biggit on.[11][12] Darwin's scientific wark is the maist-muckle theory o the life sciences, an expones the diversity o life.[13][14]

Darwin taen a conceit wi naitur early on, whilk gart him mislippin his medical learnin at the Varsity o Edinburgh; insteid, he gied ae haund tae speir intil marine invertebrates. Studies at the Varsity o Cambridge (Christ's College) steert up his luve o naitural science.[15] Efter ae five-year vaige on HMS Beagle, he wis ae weel-forrit geologist wi observes an theories that fordert Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, an the furthsettin o his jurnal o the vaige gart him ae kenspeckle author.[16]

Bumbazelt wi the geografi distribution o beasts an fossils gaithert on the vaige, Darwin pit doun ae puckle o jottins, an frae them biggit his theory o naitural selection in 1838 .[17] Thou he haed communes wi ae hantle ither naituralists about his ideas, he haedna time for richt canny resairch an his geological wark wis aye pit abuin aathin.[18] In 1858, whiles screivin his theory in 1858, Alfred Russel Wallace sent him ae quair that pit forrit the same idea, garrin the jynt furthsettin o baith o thair theories belive.[19] Darwin's wark establisht evolutionary strynd wi modification as the mucklest scientific raison ahint sinderins in naitur.[11] In 1871 he speirt intil human evolution an sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, follaed bi The Expression of the Emotions in Man an Animals (1872). His resairch on plants wis furthset in a series o beuks, an in his lest beuk, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he leukit at swinkies an their eftercasts on syle.[20][21]

Darwin, the day, is kent as ane o the maist influential fowk o aa time,[22] an he wis gien the mense o bein yirdit in Wastminster Abbey.[23]

References eedit

  1. Freeman 2007, p. 76.
  2. a b "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Archived frae the original on 16 Mairch 2015.
  3. Darwin in Cambridge Archived 23 Mairch 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  4. Charles Darwin's personal finances revealed in new find Archived 19 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Darwin" Archived 18 Julie 2014 at the Wayback Machine entry in Collins English Dictionary.
  6. Desmond, Moore & Browne 2004
  7. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Viking. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-670-02053-9.
  8. Larson 2004, pp. 79–111
  9. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-923084-6. In The Origin, Darwin provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of life. Much of that book presents evidence that not only supports evolution, but at the same time refutes creationism. In Darwin's day, the evidence for his theories was compelling, but not completely decisive.
  10. Glass, Bentley (1959). Forerunners of Darwin. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. iv. ISBN 0-8018-0222-9. Darwin's solution is a magnificent synthesis of evidence...a synthesis...compelling in honesty and comprehensiveness
  11. a b van Wyhe 2008
  12. Bowler 2003, pp. 178–179, 338, 347
  13. The Complete Works of Darwin Online – Biography. Archived 7 Januar 2007 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 2006-12-15
    Dobzhansky 1973
  14. As Darwinian scholar Joseph Carroll of the University of Missouri–St. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: "The Origin of Species has special claims on our attention. It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world...It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling." Carroll, Joseph, ed. (2003). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview. p. 15. ISBN 1-55111-337-6.
  15. Leff 2000, About Charles Darwin
  16. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 210, 284–285
  17. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 263–274
  18. van Wyhe 2007, pp. 184, 187
  19. Beddall, B. G. (1968). "Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection" (PDF). Journal of the History of Biology. 1 (2): 261–323. doi:10.1007/BF00351923. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help) "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. Freeman 1977
  21. " – All of Darwin's Books". Archived frae the original on 1 Apryle 2016. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help) "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 1 Apryle 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  22. "Special feature: Darwin 200". New Scientist. Archived frae the original on 11 Februar 2011. Retrieved 2 Apryle 2011. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  23. "Westminster Abbey » Charles Darwin". Westminster Abbey » Home. 2 Januar 2016. Archived frae the original on 4 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 2 Januar 2016. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
    Leff 2000, Darwin's Burial