C (programmin leid)

general-purpose programmin leid

In computin, C (/ˈs/, as in the letter C) is a general-purpose programmin leid initially developed bi Dennis Ritchie atween 1969 an 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs.[4] Lik maist imperative leids in the ALGOL tradeetion, C haes facilities for structured programmin an allaes lexical variable scope an recursion, while a static type seestem prevents mony unintendit operations. Its design provides constructs that cairt efficiently tae teepical machine instructions, an tharefore it haes foond lastin uise in applications that haed umwhile been codit in assembly leid, maist notably seestem saftware lik the Unix computer operatin seestem.[5]

Text in licht blue serif caipital letters on white background an vera lairge licht blue sans-serif letter C.
Paradigm(s)Imperative (procedural), structured
Appeared in1972[1]
Designed biDennis Ritchie
DeveloperDennis Ritchie & Bell Labs (creators); ANSI X3J11 (ANSI C); ISO/IEC JTC1/SC22/WG14 (ISO C)
Stable releaseC11 (December 2011)
Typin disciplineStatic, weak, manifest, nominal
Major implementationsClang, GCC, Intel C, MSVC, Pelles C, Watcom C
DialectsCyclone, Unified Parallel C, Split-C, Cilk, C*
Influenced biB (BCPL, CPL), ALGOL 68,[2] Assembly, PL/I, FORTRAN
InfluencedNumerous: AMPL, AWK, csh, C++, C--, C#, Objective-C, BitC, D, Go, Rust, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Perl, PHP, Pike, Processing, Seed7, Verilog (HDL)[3]
OSCross-platform (multi-platform)
Usual filename extensions.c, .h


  1. Ritchie, Dennis M. (1993). "The Development of the C Language". Archived frae the original on 22 Juin 2013. Retrieved 1 Januar 2008. Thompson had made a brief attempt to produce a system coded in an early version of C—before structures—in 1972, but gave up the effort. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Ritchie, Dennis M. (1993). "The Development of the C Language". Archived frae the original on 22 Juin 2013. Retrieved 1 Januar 2008. The scheme of type composition adopted by C owes considerable debt to Algol 68, although it did not, perhaps, emerge in a form that Algol's adherents would approve of. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. "Verilog HDL (and C)" (PDF). The Research School of Computer Science at the Australian National University. 3 Juin 2010. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 1980s: ; Verilog first introduced ; Verilog inspired by the C programming language
  4. Giannini, Mario; Code Fighter, Inc.; Columbia University (2004). "C/C++". In Hossein, Bidgoli (ed.). The Internet encyclopedia. 1. John Wiley and Sons. p. 164. ISBN 0-471-22201-1. Archived frae the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  5. Lawlis, Patricia K. (1997). "Guidelines for Choosing a Computer Language: Support for the Visionary Organization". Ada Information Clearinghouse. Retrieved 18 Julie 2006. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)