Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη; Georgie: ანტიოქია; Armenie: Անտիոք Antiok; Laitin: Antiochia ad Orontem; Arabic:انطاکیه, Anṭākiya; an aw Great Antioch or Sirie Antioch) wis an auncient ceety on the eastren side o the Orontes River. It is near the modren ceety o Antakya, Turkey.

Location o Antioch, in present Turkey

Foondit near the end o the 4t century BC bi Seleucus I Nicator, ane o Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief ceety o the Near East an wis a cradle o Gentile Christianity.[1] It wis ane o the fower ceeties o the Sirie tetrapolis. Its residents are kent as Antiochenes. Ance a great metropolis o a hauf million fowk, it declined tae insignificance durin the Middle Ages acause o repeatit earthquakes, the slochter o its inhabitants bi a Mameluk airmy in 1268, an a chynge in trade routes, follaein the Mongol conquests, which then nae langer passed through Antioch frae the far east.


Twa routes frae the Mediterranean, lyin through the Orontes gorge an the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain o the Antioch Lake (Balük Geut or El Bahr) an are met there bi

  1. the road frae the Amanian Gate (Baghche Pass) an wastren Commagene, which descends the valley o the Karasu River tae the Afrin River,
  2. the roads frae eastren Commagene an the Euphratean crossins at Samosata (Samsat) an Apamea Zeugma (Birejik), which descend the valleys o the Afrin an the Quweiq rivers, an
  3. the road frae the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the fringe o the Sirie steppe. A single route proceeds sooth in the Orontes valley.


  1. "The mixture of Roman, Greek, and Jewish elements admirably adapted Antioch for the great part it played in the early history of Christianity. The ceety wis the cradle o the kirk." Encyclopedia Biblica

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Coordinates: 36°12′N 36°09′E / 36.200°N 36.150°E / 36.200; 36.150