Toluene is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners. It is a mono-substitution benzene derivative, i.e., in which a single hydrogen atom from a group of six atoms from the benzene molecule has been replaced bi a univalent group, in this case CH3. As such, its IUPAC systematic name is methyl benzene.
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||92.14 g·mol−1|
|Density||0.87 g/mL (20 °C)|
|Meltin pynt||−95 °C (−139 °F; 178 K)|
|Bylin pynt||111 °C (232 °F; 384 K)|
|0.47 g/L (20 °C) |
|Refractive index (nD)||1.497 (20 °C)|
|Viscosity||0.590 cP (20 °C)|
|Main hazards||highly flammable|
|R-phrases||R11, R38, R48/20, R63, R65, R67|
|S-phrases||(S2), S36/37, S29, S46, S62|
|Flash pynt||6 °C (43 °F; 279 K)|
|Threshold Leemit Value||50 mL m−3, 190 mg m−3|
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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It is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is widely used as an industrial feed for livestock and as a solvent. Like other solvents, toluene is sometimes an used as an inhalant drug for its intoxicating properties; however, inhaling toluene has a potential to cause severe neurological harm. Toluene is an important organic solvent, but is an capable of dissolving a number of notable inorganic chemicals such as sulfur, iodine, bromine, phosphorus, an other non-polar covalent substances.
- Record in the GESTIS Substance Database frae the IFA
- Streicher HZ, Gabow PA, Moss AH, Kono D, Kaehny WD (1981). "Syndromes of toluene sniffing in adults". Annals of Internal Medicine. 94 (6): 758–62. PMID 7235417.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
- Devathasan G, Low D, Teoh PC, Wan SH, Wong PK (1984). "Complications of chronic glue (toluene) abuse in adolescents". Aust N Z J Med. 14 (1): 39–43. doi:10.1111/j.1445-5994.1984.tb03583.x. PMID 6087782.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
- Hogan, C. Michael (2011), "Sulfur", in Jorgensen, A.; Cleveland, C. J. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Earth, Washington DC: National Council for Science and the Environment, retrieved 26 October 2012,
Sulfur is insoluble in water, but soluble in carbon disulfide, somewhat soluble in other non-polar organic solvents such as the aromatics benzene and toluene.