Photografie is a wey o makin a pictur uisin a camera. A body that maks picturs uisin a camera is cried a photographer. A pictur made uisin a camera is cried a photograph or photae.
A camera is like a wi a hole in the front. There is a byordinar bit o gless afore the hole cried a lens. Tae mak a photograph o something, the lens thraws a wee pictur o't inside the camera. The lens daes this by focusin licht. A lens in a camera wirks like a lens in glesses (spectacles) or a magnifeein gless.
For tae mak a photae wi a camera the shutter release button is pressed. Pressin the button opens the shutter. The shutter is like a door. It kivers the hole in the camera. The shutter is ahint the lens. Whan the shutter is closed nae licht can enter the camera. Whan the shutter is open licht can enter the camera. Whan the button is pressed the shutter opens an syne closes. This happens gey fast. The lenth o time the shutter steys open for is cried the shutter speed. The shutter speed can chynge atween 1/1000t o a seicont (0.001 s) tae a puckle seiconts. Maistlins the time it taks for the shutter tae open an close is faur less than a seicont.
A camera haes an apertur ring forby. The apertur ring is ahint the lens, but afore the shutter. The purpose o the apertur ring is tae control whitna licht enters the camera. The apertur ring is a flat circle wi a smaw hole in the centre. The smaw hole is cried the apertur. The size o the apertur can be chynged. Whan the apertur is real smaw juist a bit licht can enter the camera. Whan the apertur is lairge, loads o licht can get in.
The pictur the lens maks is recordit on photographic film. Film is pitten intil the camera. Licht comin throu the lens, apertur an open shutter shines on the film. Photographic film is coatit wi chemicals that reacts whan licht shines on it. Lattin licht shine on the film is cried exposin the film.
There's mony differin kinds o photographic film. There's films for takkin colour photographs an films for takin black an white photographs. There's differin sizes o film. The maist common size is 35 mm. It is cried 35 mm sith the width o the film is 35 millimetres. Maist cameras uises 35 mm film.
Anither differ atween films is hou sensitive they are tae licht. Films haes a code nummer, cried an ISO nummer. The ISO nummer says hou fast a film reacts whan licht shines on it. Exemplars o ISO nummers is ISO 50, ISO 100, IS0 200, ISO 400, ISO 800, an ISO 1600. The ISO nummer is whiles cried the ASA number or the film speed. Whan the ISO nummer is law, ISO 50 for exemplar, the film taks a lang time tae record the pictur. This is cried a slaw film. This means the shutter haes tae stey open for a lang time. Whan the ISO nummer is heich, ISO 800 for exemplar, the pictur is duin gey quick. This is a fast film. This means the shutter haes tae open an close quick.
Ance the film haes been exposed, it is processed. Processin haes to be duin in richt darkness or the film will be exposed ower muckle an the pictur will be tint. Processin stops the film reactin tae licht ony mair. Efter the film haes been processed the pictur can be seen on the film.
A photographic prent is a photograph creatit on paper. A licht-sensitive paper is uised. The pictur on the film is pitten in an enlairger. An enlairger is a machine that sheens licht throu the film an maks a bigger pictur on the licht-sensitive paper. A chemical reaction happens in the paper. Syne the paper is processed for tae stop it bein licht-sensitive. Lastly it is developed. Developin maks the pictur kythe on the paper – nou it is a photograph.
Deegital photography is photography duin uisin a deegital camera. Whiles it is cried deegital eemagin. A deegital camera haes a lens, apertur, an shutter. The pictur the lens maks is recordit by a licht-sensitive lectronic sensor. A deegital camera daesna uise photographic film tae record a pictur. Deegital photographs is hained in a computer but paper prints can be made forby frae deegital picturs. Deegital cameras can be dear tae keep an aw. Tae hae yer picturs prented at hame the same wey commercial prents is made, ye need a byordinar kind o prenter an paper.
Makkin a photographEedit
The maist important thing whan takkin a photograph is focusin the lens. Gin the lens daesna focus the pictur weel, the photograph will be bleart. Autofocus cameras focus themsels whan the shutter release is pressed. The photographer haes tae focus manual cameras (maistlins aulder anes).
Three ither things is important whan takin a photograph. They control hou bricht or dark the photograph will be.
- The shutter speed – hou lang the shutter is open for.
- The apertur – whitna licht gangs intil the camera.
- The film speed – hou quick the film records the pictur.
A slaw shutter speed, a bigger apertur, an a fast film will mak a brichter pictur. A fast shutter speed, a smaw apertur, an a slaw film will gie a darker pictur. A guid pictur isna ower bricht nor ower dark. An automatic camera chynges thae things itsel whan the shutter release is pressed.
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