Pashto (Naskh: پښتو [paʂˈto]; forby transliteratit Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto, Pashtu, or Pushtu), cried Afghani[8] an aa, is a member o the Eastren Iranian leids group which is spoken primarily bi the Pashtun fowk in Afghanistan an Pakistan, as well as bi the Pashtun diaspora athort the globe.[9]

The wird Pax̌tō written in the Pashto alphabet
Pronunciation[ˈpəʂt̪oː], [ˈpʊxt̪oː]
Native taeAfghanistan an Pakistan
RegionSooth Asia, Central Asie
Native speakers
50–60 million (2007–2009)[1][2][3]
  • Indo-Iranian
    • Iranian
      • Eastren Iranian
        • Pashto
Staundart forms
Central Pashto
Northren Pashto
Soothren Pashto
Dialects~20 dialects
  • Perso-Arabic script
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
Recognised minority
leid in
Regulatit biAcademy o Sciences o Afghanistan, Pashto Academy, Pakistan[6]
Leid codes
ISO 639-1ps – Pashto, Pushto
ISO 639-2pus – Pushto, Pashto
ISO 639-3pusinclusive code – Pashto, Pushto
Individual codes:
pst – Central Pashto
pbu – Northern Pashto
pbt – Southern Pashto
wne – Wanetsi
Glottologpash1269  Pashto[7]
This article contains IPA phonetic seembols. Withoot proper renderin support, ye mey see quaisten merks, boxes, or ither seembols insteid o Unicode chairacters. For an introductory guide on IPA seembols, see Help:IPA.


  1. Penzl, Herbert; Ismail Sloan (2009). A Grammar of Pashto a Descriptive Study of the Dialect of Kandahar, Afghanistan. Ishi Press International. p. 210. ISBN 0-923891-72-2. Retrieved 25 October 2010. Estimates of the number of Pashto speakers range from 40 million to 60 million...
  2. Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 38 Largest Languages in 2007 (39 million)
  3. Pashto (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedie o Leid an Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. Constitution o AfghanistanChapter 1 The State, Article 16 (Languages) and Article 20 (Anthem)
  5. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 Apryle 2010. pp. 845–. ISBN 978-0-08-087775-4.
  6. Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705.
  7. Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Pashto". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  8., "Afghani," in The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Source location: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Accessed: July 14, 2010.
  9. "Pashto". Archived frae the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2010. The exact number o Pashto speakers is no kent for sure, but maist estimates range frae 45 million tae 55 million.