Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (IPA: [mak.si.mi.ljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi i.zi.dɔʁ də ʁɔ.bɛs.pjɛʁ]; 6 Mey 1758 – 28 Julie 1794) wis a French lawyer an politeecian, an ane o the best-kent an maist influential figurs o the French Revolution.
|2nt Preses o the Committee o Public Safety|
27 Julie 1793 – 27 Julie 1794
|Precedit bi||Georges Danton|
|Succeedit bi||Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne|
|Preses o the Naitional Convention|
4 Juin 1794 – 17 Juin 1794
22 August 1793 – 5 September 1793
|Deputy o the Naitional Convention|
20 September 1792 – 27 July 1794
|Deputy o the Naitional Constituent Assembly|
9 Julie 1789 – 30 September 1791
|Deputy o the Naitional Assembly|
17 Juin 1789 – 9 Julie 1789
|Member o the Estates General for the Third Estate|
6 Mey 1789 – 16 Juin 1789
|Born||Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre|
6 Mey 1758
Arras, Artois, Fraunce
|Dee'd||28 Julie 1794 (aged 36)|
Place de la Révolution, Paris, Fraunce
|Poleetical pairty||Jacobin Club (1789–1794)|
|The Mountain (1792–1794)|
|Alma mater||Lycée Louis-le-Grand|
|Profession||Lawyer an politeecian|
(Cult o the Supreme Bein)
As a member o the Estates-General, the Constituent Assembly an the Jacobin Club, Robespierre wis an ootspoken advocate for the puir an for democratic institutions. He campaigned for universal male suffrage in Fraunce, price controls on basic fuid commodities an the aboleetion o sclavery in the French colonies. He wis an ardent opponent o the daith penalty, but played an important role in arrangin the execution o Keeng Louis XVI, that led tae the establishment o a French Republic.
He is perhaps best kent for his role in the French Revolution's Ring o Terror. He wis named as a member o the pouerfu Committee o Public Sauftie launched bi his poleetical ally Georges Danton an exertit his influence tae suppress the left-weeng Hébertists. As pairt o his attempts tae uise extreme meisurs tae control poleetical activity in Fraunce, Robespierre later muived against the mair moderate Danton, that wis accused o corruption an executit in Apryle 1794. The Terror endit a few months later wi Robespierre's reest an execution in Julie, events that ineetiatit a period in French history kent as the Thermidorian Reaction. Robespierre's personal responsibility for the excesses o the Terror remeens the subject o intense debate amang historians o the French Revolution.
Influenced bi 18t-century Enlichtment philosophes sic as Rousseau an Montesquieu, Robespierre wis a capable airteeculator the beliefs o the left-weeng bourgeoisie. His steidfest defence o the views he expressed earned him the nickname l'Incorruptible (The Incorruptible).
Robespierre's reputation haes gane throu several cycles o re-appraisal. In the Soviet era, Robespierre wis uised as an ensaumple o a revolutionar feegur. His reputation peaked in the 1920s wi the influence o French historian Albert Mathiez. In mair recent times, his reputation haes suffered as historians hae associatit him wi an attempt at a radical purification o politics throu the killin o enemies.[lower-alpha 1]
- "There are two ways of totally misunderstanding Robespierre as historical figure: one is to detest the man, the other is to make too much of him. It is absurd, of course, to see the lawyer from Arras as a monstrous usurper, the recluse as a demagogue, the moderate as bloodthirsty tyrant, the democrat as a dictator. On the other hand, what is explained about his destiny once it is proved that he really was the Incorruptible? The misconception common to both schools arises from the fact that they attribute to the psychological traits of the man the historical role into which he was thrust by events and the language he borrowed from them. Robespierre is an immortal figure not because he reigned supreme over the Revolution for a few months, but because he was the mouthpiece of its purest and most tragic discourse." Furet 1989a, pp. 60–61
- Serna 2005, p. 370.
- Mathiez 1988, p. 63,70.
- Martin 2006, p. 224.
- Thompson 1988, p. 174.
- Bean, Horak & Kapse 2014.
- Mathiez 1977.
- Shulim, Joseph I. (1 January 1977). Bouloiseau, Marc; Gallo, Max; Hampson, Naorman; Mathiez, Albert; Mazlish, Bruce; Rudé, George; Soboul, Albert; Forrest, Alan; Jones, Colin (eds.). "Robespierre and the French Revolution". The American Historical Review. 82 (1): 20–38. doi:10.2307/1857136.
- Scurr 2006.
- Bean, Jennifer M.; Horak, Laura; Kapse, Anupama (2014). Silent Cinema and the Politics of Space (in Inglis). Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253015075.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Martin, Jean-Clément (2006). Violence et Révolution : essai sur la naissance d'un mythe national (in French). Paris: Éd. du Seuil. ISBN 978-2020438421.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mathiez, Albert (1977). "ROBESPIERRE: L'HISTOIRE ET LA LEGENDE". Annales historiques de la Révolution française. 49 (227): 5–31.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mathiez, Albert (1988). Etudes sur Robespierre : 1758–1794. Paris: Messidor. ISBN 978-2209060498.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Scurr, Ruth (2006). Fatal Purity: Robespierre and the French Revolution (in Inglis). New York: Macmillan. ISBN 9780805082616.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Serna, Pierre (2005). La République des girouettes : (1789–1815 ... et au-delà) : une anomalie politique: la France de l'extrême centre. Seyssel: Champ Vallon. ISBN 9782876734135.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thompson, J.M. (1988). Robespierre. New York, NY: B. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631155041.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)