Human immunodeficiency virus infection an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum o condeetions caused bi infection wi the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Follaein ineetial infection, a person mey nae notice ony symptoms or mey experience a brief period o influenza-lik illness. Teepically, this is follaed bi a prolonged period wi na symptoms. As the infection progresses, it interferes mair wi the immune seestem, increasin the risk o common infections lik tuberculosis, as well as ither opportunistic infections, an tumors that rarely affect fowk that hae wirkin immune seestems. Thir late symptoms o infection are referred tae as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This stage is eften an aa associatit wi wecht loss.
|Synonyms||HIV disease, HIV infection|
|The reid reebin is a seembol for solidarity wi HIV-positive fowk an thae leevin wi AIDS.|
|Symptoms||Early: flu lik illness|
Later: Lairge lymph nodes, fiver, wecht loss
|Complications||Opportunistic infections, tumors|
|Causes||Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)|
|Risk factors||Exposur tae bluid, breast milk, sex|
|Diagnostic method||Bluid tests|
|Prevention||Sauf sex, needle exchynge, male circumcision|
|Prognosis||Near normal life expectancy wi treatment|
|Frequency||1.8 million new cases (2016)|
36.7 million living with HIV (2016)
|Daiths||1.0 million (2016)|
HIV is spread primarily bi unpertectit sex (includin anal an oral sex), contaminatit bluid transfusions, hypodermic needles, an frae mither tae bairn in pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeedin. Some bodily fluids, sic as saliva an tears, dae nae transmit HIV. Methods o prevention include sauf sex, needle exchynge programmes, treatin thae that are infectit, an male circumcision. Disease in a baby can eften be preventit bi giein baith the mither an bairn antiretroviral medication. Thare is na cure or vaccine; houiver, antiretroviral treatment can slaw the coorse o the disease an mey lead tae a near-normal life expectancy. Treatment is recommendit as suin as the diagnosis is made. Withoot treatment, the average survival time efter infection is 11 years.
In 2016 aboot 36.7 million fowk war leevin wi HIV an it resultit in 1 million daiths. Thare war 300,000 fewer new HIV cases in 2016 nor in 2015. Maist o thae infectit live in sub-Saharan Africae. Atween its diskivery an 2014 AIDS haes caused an estimatit 39 million daiths warldwide. HIV/AIDS is conseedert a pandemic—a disease ootbrak that is present ower a lairge aurie an is actively spreidin. HIV is believed tae hae oreeginatit in wast-central Africae in the late 19t or early 20t century. AIDS wis first recognised bi the Unitit States Centres for Disease Control an Prevention (CDC) in 1981 an its cause—HIV infection—wis identifee'd in the early pairt o the decade.
HIV/AIDS haes haed a great impact on society, baith as an illness an as a soorce o discrimination. The disease an aa haes lairge economic impacts. Thare are mony misconceptions aboot HIV/AIDS sic as the belief that it can be transmittit bi casual non-sexual contact. The disease haes acome subject tae mony controversies involvin releegion includin the Catholic Kirk's poseetion nae tae support condom uise as prevention. It haes attractit internaitional medical an poleetical attention as weel as lairge-scale fundin syne it wis identifee'd in the 1980s.
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