Electricity is the set o physical phenomena associatit wi the presence an motion o electric chairge. Awtho ineetially conseedert a phenomenon separate frae magnetism, syne the development o Maxwell's equations, baith are recognised as pairt o a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are relatit tae electricity, includin lichtnin, static electricity, electric heatin, electric dischairges an mony ithers.
Whan a chairge is placed in a location wi a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude o this force is gien bi Coulomb's law. Sicweys, gin that chairge war tae muive, the electric field wad be daein wirk on the electric chairge. Sicweys we can speak o electric potential at a certain pynt in space, that is equal tae the wirk duin bi an freemit augent in cairyin a unit o positive chairge frae an arbitrarily chuisen reference pynt tae that point withoot ony acceleration an is teepically meisurt in volts.
Electricity is at the hert o mony modren technologies, bein uised for:
- electric pouer whaur electric current is uised tae energise equipment;
- electronics that deals wi electrical circuits that involve active electrical components sic as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes an integratit circuits, an associatit passive interconnection technologies.
Electrical phenomena hae been studied syne antiquity, tho progress in theoretical unnerstaundin remeened slaw till the seiventeent an aichteent centuries. Even then, practical applications for electricity war few, an it wad nae be till the late nineteent century that electrical ingineers war able tae put it tae industrial an residential uise. The fest expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industrie an society, acomin a drivin force for the Seicont Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be pit tae an awmaist leemitless set o applications that include transport, heatin, lichtin, communications, an computation. Electrical pouer is nou the backbane o modren industrial society.