Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a teep o obstructive buff disease chairacterised bi lang-term puir airflow. The main symptoms include shortness o breath an coch wi sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meanin it teepically worsens ower time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walkin up stairs, acome difficult. Chronic bronchitis an emphysema are aulder terms uised for different teeps o COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still uised tae define a productive coch that is present for at least three month each year for twa years.
|Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease|
|Synonyms||chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airwey disease (COAD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary emphysema, ithers|
|Gross pathology o a buff shawin centrilobular-teep emphysema chairactereestic o smokin. This close-up o the fixed, cut buff surface shaws multiple cavities filled wi hivy black carbon deposits.|
|Clessification an freemit resoorces|
|Patient UK||Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease|
- Vestbo, Jørgen (2013). "Definition and Overview". Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. pp. 1–7.
- "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact sheet N°315". WHO. Januar 2015. Retrieved 4 Mairch 2016.
- Craig, John A. (2012). Ferri's netter patient advisor (2nd ed.). Saunders. p. 913. ISBN 9781455728268.
- Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD (PDF). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. 2016. p. 2. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 18 Apryle 2016. Retrieved 22 Mairch 2017.