Braille is a tactile writin seestem uised bi fowk that are veesually impaired. It is tradeetionally written wi embossed paper. Braille uisers can read computer screens an ither electronic supports thanks tae refreshable braille displays. Thay can write braille wi the oreeginal slate an stylus or teep it on a braille writer, sic as a portable braille notetaker or computer that prents wi a braille embosser.
|1824 tae the present|
|New York Pynt|
Braille is named efter its creautor, Louis Braille, a Frenchman that lost his sicht as a result o a bairnheid accident. In 1824, at the age o fifteen, he developed a code for the French alphabet as an impruivement on nicht writin. He published his seestem, which subsequently includit muisical notation, in 1829. The seicont revision, published in 1837, wis the first smaw binar form o writin developit in the modren era.
Thir chairacters hae rectangular blocks cried cells that hae tiny bumps cried raised dots. The nummer an arrangement o thir dots distinguish ane chairacter frae anither. Syne the various braille alphabets oreeginatit as transcription codes for prentit writin, the mappins (sets o chairacter designations) vary frae leid tae leid, an even within ane; in Inglis Braille thare are three levels o encodin: Grade 1 – a letter-bi-letter transcription uised for basic leeteracy; Grade 2 – an addeetion o abbreviations an contractions; an Grade 3 – various non-staundartised personal stenografie.
Braille cells are nae the anly thing tae appear in braille text. Thare mey be embossed illustrations an graphs, wi the lines aither solit or made o series o dots, arraes, bullets that are lairger than braille dots, etc. A full Braille cell includes sax raised dots arranged in twa columns, ilk haein three dots. The dot poseetions are identifee'd bi nummers frae ane tae sax. 64 solutions are possible uisin ane or mair dots. A cell can be uised tae represent a letter, nummer, punctuation merk, or even a wird.
- Braille, Louis (1829). Method of Writing Words, Music, and Plain Songs by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them
- "How Braille Began". http://www.brailler.com. Freemit airtin in
- "The Dot Positions Are Identified by Numbers from One Through Six". AFB.org. Retrieved June 19, 2016.