Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder, previously kent as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods o depression an periods o elevatit muid.[3][4]

Bipolar disorder
SynonymsBipolar affective disorder, bipolar illness, manic depression, manic depressive disorder, manic-depressive illness,[1] manic-depressive psychosis, circular insanity,[1] bipolar disease[2]
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Bipolar disorder is chairacterised bi episodes o depression an mania.
SpecialtyPsychiatry
SymptomsPeriods o depression an elevatit muid[3][4]
ComplicationsSuicide, sel-hairm[3]
Uisual onset25 year auld[3]
TeepsBipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, ithers[4]
CausesEnvironmental an genetic[3]
Risk factorsFaimily history, childhood abuse, lang-term stress[3]
Seemilar condeetionsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia, substance uise disorder[3]
TreatmentPsychotherapy, medications[3]
MedicationLithium, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants[3]
Frequency1-3%[3][5]
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ReferencesEedit

  1. a b Edward Shorter (2005). A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 165–166. ISBN 978-0-19-517668-1.
  2. Coyle, Nessa; Paice, Judith A. (2015). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing (in Inglis). Oxford University Press, Incorporated. p. 623. ISBN 9780199332342. Archived frae the original on September 8, 2017. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  3. a b c d e f g h i j Anderson IM, Haddad PM, Scott J (27 December 2012). "Bipolar disorder". BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 345: e8508. doi:10.1136/bmj.e8508. PMID 23271744.
  4. a b c American Psychiatry Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 123–154. ISBN 0-89042-555-8.
  5. Schmitt A, Malchow B, Hasan A, Falkai P (Februar 2014). "The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders". Front Neurosci. 8 (19). doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00019. PMC 3920481. PMID 24574956.