The Tigris River (/ˈtɡrɪs/) is the eastren member o the twa great rivers that define Mesopotamie, the ither bein the Euphrates. The river flaws sooth frae the muntains o sootheastren Turkey through Iraq.

Tigris River At Diyarbakir.JPG
Aboot 100 km frae its soorce, the Tigris enables rich agricultur in Diyarbakır Province.
Main sourceLake Hazar[citation needit]
1,150 m (3,770 ft)
38°29′0″N 39°25′0″E / 38.48333°N 39.41667°E / 38.48333; 39.41667
River moothShatt al-Arab
Al-Qurnah, Basra Governorate, Iraq
Basin size375,000 km2 (145,000 sq mi)
Pheesical chairacteristics
Lenth1,850 km (1,150 mi)
  • Location:
  • Minimum rate:
    337 m3/s (11,900 cu ft/s)
  • Average rate:
    1,014 m3/s (35,800 cu ft/s)
  • Maximum rate:
    2,779 m3/s (98,100 cu ft/s)


The Tigris is 1,850 km lang, risin in the Taurus Muntains o eastren Turkey aboot 25 km sootheast o the ceety o Elazig an aboot 30 km frae the heidwatters o the Euphrates. The river then flaws for 400 km through Turkish territory afore acomin the border atween Sirie an Turkey. This stretch o 44 km is the only pairt o the river that is locatit in Sirie. The remainin 1,418 km are entirely within Iraq.[1]

The Tigris unites wi the Euphrates near Basra, an frae this junction tae the Persian Gulf the mass o movin watter is kent as the Shatt-al-Arab. Accordin tae Pliny an ither auncient historians, the Euphrates originally haed its ootlet intae the sea separate frae that o the Tigris.[3]

Baghdad, the caipital o Iraq, staunds on the banks o the Tigris. The port ceety o Basra straddles the Shatt al-Arab. In auncient times, mony o the great ceeties o Mesopotamie stuid on or near the Tigris, drawin watter frae it tae irrigate the ceevilization o the Sumerians. Notable Tigris-side ceeties includit Ninawa, Ctesiphon, an Seleucia, while the ceety o Lagash wis irrigatit bi the Tigris via a canal dug aroond 2400 BC.


  1. a b Isaev, V.A.; Mikhailova, M.V. (2009). "The hydrology, evolution, and hydrological regime of the mouth area of the Shatt al-Arab River". Water Resources. 36 (4): 380–395. doi:10.1134/S0097807809040022.
  2. Kolars, J.F.; Mitchell, W.A. (1991). The Euphrates River and the Southeast Anatolia Development Project. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 6–8. ISBN 0-8093-1572-6.
  3. Pliny: Natural History, VI, XXVI, 128-131