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Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin o Bewdley KG PC FRS[1] (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) wis a Breetish Conservative politeecian, who dominatit the govrenment in his kintra atween the twa warld wars.


The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley

Stanley Baldwin LCCN2014712420 (cropped).jpg
Baldwin in the 1920s
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
7 Juin 1935 – 28 Mey 1937
MonarchGeorge V
Edward VIII
George VI
Precedit biRamsay MacDonald
Succeedit biNeville Chamberlain
In office
4 November 1924 – 5 Juin 1929
MonarchGeorge V
Precedit biRamsay MacDonald
Succeedit biRamsay MacDonald
In office
23 Mey 1923 – 16 Januar 1924
MonarchGeorge V
Precedit biAndrew Bonar Law
Succeedit biRamsay MacDonald
Laird Preses o the Cooncil
In office
24 August 1931 – 7 Juin 1935
Prime MeenisterRamsay MacDonald
Precedit biThe Lord Parmoor
Succeedit biRamsay MacDonald
Leader o the Opposeetion
In office
5 Juin 1929 – 24 August 1931
MonarchGeorge V
Precedit biRamsay MacDonald
Succeedit biArthur Henderson
In office
22 Januar 1924 – 4 November 1924
MonarchGeorge V
Precedit biRamsay MacDonald
Succeedit biRamsay MacDonald
Leader o the Conservative Pairty
In office
22 Mey 1923 – 28 Mey 1937
Precedit biAndrew Bonar Law
Succeedit biNeville Chamberlain
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
27 October 1922 – 27 August 1923
Prime MeenisterAndrew Bonar Law
Precedit biSir Robert Horne
Succeedit biNeville Chamberlain
Preses o the Buird o Trade
In office
1 Aprile 1921 – 19 October 1922
Prime MeenisterDavid Lloyd George
Precedit biSir Robert Horne
Succeedit biSir Philip Lloyd-Greame
Member o Pairlament
for Bewdley
In office
29 Februar 1908 – 30 Juin 1937
Precedit biAlfred Baldwin
Succeedit biRoger Conant
Personal details
Born3 August 1867(1867-08-03)
Bewdley, Unitit Kinrick
Dee'd14 December 1947(1947-12-14) (aged 80)
Stourport-on-Severn, Unitit Kinrick
Restin placeWorcester Cathedral
NaitionalityBreetish
Poleetical pairtyConservative
Spoose(s)Lucy Ridsdale (m. 18921945)
BairnsDiana Lucy
Leonora Stanley
Pamela Margaret
Oliver Ridsdale
Esther Louisa
Arthur Windham
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge
Mason College
ProfessionIndustrialist
ReligionKirk o Ingland
SignaturCursive signatur in ink

Born tae a weel-aff faimily in Bewdley, Worcestershire, Baldwin wis eddicate at Hawtreys, Harrow School an Trinity College, Cambridge. He jynt the faimily airn an steel makkin business an entered the Hoose o Commons in 1908 as the Member o Pairlament for Bewdley, succeedin his faither Alfred. He served as Financial Secretar tae the Thesaury (1917–1921) an Preses o the Buird o Tred (1921–1922) in the coaleetion meenistry o David Lloyd George an then rose fest: in 1922, Baldwin wis ane o the prime muivers in the widrawal o Conservative support frae Lloyd George; he subsequently becam Chancellor o the Exchequer in Bonar Law's Conservative meenistry. Upon Bonar Law's resignation due tae heal reasons in Mey 1923, Baldwin becam Prime Meenister an Leader o the Conservative Pairty. He cried an election in December 1923 on the issue o tariffs an lost the Conservatives' pairlamentar majority, efter that Ramsay MacDonald formed a minority Labour govrenment.

Efter winnin the 1924 general election, Baldwin formed his seicont govrenment, that saw important tenurs o office bi Sir Austen Chamberlain (Furrin Secretar), Winston Churchill (at the Exchequer) an Neville Chamberlain (Heal). The latter twa meenisters strenthened Conservative appeal bi reforms in auries umwhile associatit wi the Leeberal Pairty. Thay includit industrial conciliation, unemployment insurance, a mair extensive auld-age pension seestem, slum clearance, mair preevat hoosin an expansion o maternal an bairncare. Houiver, conteenain sluggish economic growthe an declines in minin an hivy industry waikened Baldwin's base o support an his govrenment an aw saw the General Strike in 1926 an the Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1927 tae crib the pouers o tred unions.[2]

Baldwin narraely lost the 1929 general election an his conteenaed leadership o the party wis subject tae extensive creeticism bi the press barons Lord Rothermere an Laird Beaverbrook. In 1931, wi the onset o the Great Depression Labour Prime Meenister Ramsay MacDonald formed a Naitional Govrenment, maist o that's meenisters war Conservatives, an that wan an enormous majority at the 1931 general election. As Laird Preses o the Cooncil, an ane o fower Conservatives amang the smaw ten-member Cabinet, Baldwin teuk ower mony o the Prime Meenister's duties due tae MacDonald's failin heal. This govrenment saw an Act deleeverin increased sel-govrenment for Indie, a meisur opponed bi Churchill an bi mony rank-an-file Conservatives. The Statute of Westminster 1931 gae Domeenion status tae Canadae, Australie, New Zealand an Sooth Africae, while establishin the first step taewart the Commonweel o Naitions. As pairty leader, Baldwin made mony strikin innovations, sic as cliver uise o radio an film, that made him heichly veesible tae the public an strenthened Conservative appeal.

In 1935, Baldwin offeecially replaced MacDonald as Prime Meenister o the Naitional Govrenment, an wan the 1935 general election wi anither lairge majority. In this time, he owersaw the beginnin o the reairmament process o the Breetish militar, as weel as the abdication creesis o Keeng Edward VIII. Baldwin's third govrenment saw a nummer o creeses in furrin affairs, includin the public brainyell ower the Hoare–Laval Pact, the remilitarisation o the Rhineland an the ootbrak o the Spaingie Ceevil War. Baldwin reteert in 1937 an wis succeedit bi Neville Chamberlain. At that time, Baldwin wis regairdit as a popular an successfu Prime Meenister,[3] but for the feenal decade o his life and for mony years efterwart he wis vilifee'd for haein presidit ower heich unemployment in the 1930s an as ane o the "Guilty Men" that had tried tae appease Adolf Hitler an that haed supposedly nae reairmed suffeeciently tae prepare for the Seicont Warld War. The day, modren scholars generally rank him in the upper hauf o Breetish prime meenisters.[4]

ReferencesEedit

  1. Irvine, J. C. (1948). "Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, K. G. 1867-1947". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6 (17): 2–1. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1948.0015. JSTOR 768907. 
  2. Philip Williamson, "The Conservative Party 1900 – 1939," in Chris Wrigley, ed., A Companion to Early 20th-Century Britain, (2003) pp 17-18
  3. "Unthinkable? Historically accurate films". The Guardian. London. 29 January 2011. 
  4. Paul Strangio; et al. (2013). Understanding Prime-Ministerial Performance: Comparative Perspectives. Oxford UP. pp. 224, 226. ISBN 978-0-19-966642-3.