The Space Shuttle wis a pairtially reuisable law Yird orbital spacecraft seestem operatit bi the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as pairt o the Space Shuttle programme.

Space Shuttle
Discovery lifts aff at the stairt o STS-120.
Function Crewed orbital lench an reentry
Manufacturer United Space Alliance
Thiokol/Alliant Techsystems (SRBs)
Lockheed Martin/Martin Marietta (ET)
Boeing/Rockwell (orbiter)
Kintra o origin Unitit States
Cost per launch (2020) US$ 450 million (2011)[1] to 1.5 billion (2011)[2][3][4][5]
Hicht 56.1 m (184.2 ft)
Diameter 8.7 m (28.5 ft)
Mass 2,030 t (4,470,000 lb)
Stages 2
Peylaid tae LEO27,500 kg (60,600 lb)
Peylaid tae ISS16,050 kg (35,380 lb)
Peylaid tae GTO3,810 kg (8,400 lb)
Peylaid tae Polar orbit12,700 kg (28,000 lb)
Peylaid tae Yird return14,400 kg (31,700 lb)[6]
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch steids LC-39, Kennedy Space Centre
SLC-6, Vandenberg AFB (unused)
Total launches 135
Successes 134 lenches an 133 laundins
Failurs 2
Challenger (launch failyie, 7 fatalities),
Columbia (re-entry failyie, 7 fatalities)
First flicht Apryle 12, 1981
Last flicht Julie 21, 2011
Notable payloads Tracking and Data Relay Satellites
Hubble Space Telescope
Galileo, Magellan, Ulysses
Compton Gamma Ray Observatory
Mir Docking Module
Chandra X-ray Observatory
ISS components
Boosters (Stage 0) - Solid Rocket Boosters
No. boosters 2[7]
Ingines 2 solit
Thrust 12,500 kN (2,800,000 lbf) ilk, sea level liftaff
Specific impulse 269 seconds (2.64 km/s)
Burn time 124 s
Fuel Solit (Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant)
First stage - Orbiter plus ExternalFremmit Tank
Ingines 3 SSMEs locatit on Orbiter
Thrust 5,250 kN (1,180,000 lbf) tot, sea level liftaff [8]
Specific impulse 455 seconds (4.46 km/s)
Burn time 480 s
Fuel LOX/LH2


  1. NASA (2011). "How much does it cost to launch a Space Shuttle?". NASA. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  2. The Rise and Fall of the Space Shuttle, Book Review: Final Countdown: NASA and the End of the Space Shuttle Program by Pat Duggins, American Scientist, 2008, Vol. 96, No. 5, p. 32.
  3. CARL BIALIK (July 9, 2011). "As Shuttle Sails Through Space, Costs Are Tough to Pin Down". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  4. Mike Wall (5 July 2011). "NASA's Shuttle Program Cost $209 Billion — Was it Worth It?". Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  5. Pielke Jr., Roger; Radford Byerly (7 April 2011). "Shuttle programme lifetime cost". Nature. 472 (7341): 38. Bibcode:2011Natur.472...38P. doi:10.1038/472038d. PMID 21475182.
  6. Woodcock, Gordon R. (1986). Space stations and platforms. Orbit Book co. ISBN 9780894640018. Retrieved 2012-04-17. The present limit on Shuttle landing payload is 14400 kg. (32000 lb). This value applies to payloads intended for landing.
  7. "Mission Pages". Nasa.Gov.
  8. Kyle, Ed. "STS Data Sheet". Retrieved July 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)