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The Song dynasty (Cheenese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; Wade–Giles: Sung ch'ao, [suŋ˥˧ tʂʰau˧˥]) wis an era o Cheenese history that began in 960 an continued till 1279. The dynasty wis foondit bi Emperor Taizu o Song follaein his usurpation o the throne o the Later Zhou, endin the Five Dynasties an Ten Kinricks period. The Song eften cam intae conflict wi the contemporary Liao an Wastren Xia dynasties in the north. It wis eventually conquered bi the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song govrenment wis the first in warld history tae issue banknotes or true paper money naitionally an the first Cheenese govrenment tae establish a permanent staundin navy. This dynasty an aw saw the first kent uise o gunpouder, as weel as the first discernment o true north uisin a compass.

Song dynasty

宋朝
960–1279
A cairt shawin the territory o the Song, Liao, an Xianxing dynasties. The Song dynasty occupies the east hauf o whit constitutes the territory o the modren Fowkrepublic o Cheenae, except for the northrenmaist auries (modren Inner Mongolie province an abuin). The Xia occupy a smaa strip o laund surroondin a river in whit is nou Inner Mongolie, an the Liao occupy a lairge section o whit is the day north-east Cheenae.
Northren Song in 1111
CaipitalBianjing (汴京)
(960–1127)

Lin'an (臨安)
(1127–1276)
Common leidsCheenese
Releegion
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism

Yin and Yang.svg Taoism

Cheenese folk releegion
GovrenmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 960–976
Emperor Taizu
• 1126–1127
Emperor Qinzong
• 1127–1162
Emperor Gaozong
• 1278–1279
Emperor Bing
Historical eraPostclassical Era
• Established bi Zhao Kuangyin, Emperor Taizu o Song
960
1115–1125
1127
• Beginnin o Mongol invasion
1235
• Surrender o Lin'an
1276
• Battle o Yamen merks end o Song rule
Mairch 19, 1279
Aurie
962 est.1,050,000 km2 (410,000 sq mi)
1111 est.2,800,000 km2 (1,100,000 sq mi)
1142 est.2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)
Population
• 1120
118,800,000a[›]
CurrencyJiaozi, Huizi, Cheenese cash, Cheenese coin, copper coins, etc.
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Later Zhou
Jingnan
Later Shu
Soothren Han
Soothren Tang
Wuyue
Northren Han
Yuan dynasty
The day pairt o Cheenae
   Hong Kong
   Macau

The Song dynasty is dividit intae twa distinct periods, Northren an Soothren. In the Northren Song (Cheenese: 北宋; 960–1127), the Song caipital wis in the northren ceety o Bianjing (nou Kaifeng) an the dynasty controlled maist o whit is nou Eastren Cheenae. The Soothren Song (Cheenese: 南宋; 1127–1279) refers tae the period efter the Song lost control o its northren hauf tae the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in the Jin–Song Wars. In this time, the Song coort retreatit sooth o the Yangtze an established its caipital at Lin'an (nou Hangzhou). Awtho the Song dynasty haed lost control o the tradeetional "birthplace o Cheenese ceevilisation" alang the Yellae River, the Song economy wis still strang, as the Soothren Song Empire conteened a lairge population an productive agricultural laund. The Soothren Song dynasty conseederably bowstert its naval strenth tae defend its watters an laund mairches an tae conduct maritime missions abraid. Tae repel the Jin, an later the Mongols, the Song developit revolutionar new militar technology augmentit bi the uise o gunpouder. In 1234, the Jin dynasty wis conquered bi the Mongols, that teuk control o northren Cheenae, maintainin uneasy relations wi the Soothren Song. Möngke Khan, the fowerth Great Khan o the Mongol Empire, dee'd in 1259 while besiegin the muntain castle Diaoyucheng, Chongqing. His younger brither Kublai Khan wis proclaimed the new Great Khan, tho his claim wis anerly partially recognised bi the Mongols in the wast. In 1271, Kublai Khan wis proclaimed the Emperor o Cheenae.[1] Efter twa decades o sporadic warfare, Kublai Khan's airmies conquered the Song dynasty in 1279. The Mongol invasion led tae a reunification unner the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368).[2]

The population o Cheenae doobled in size in the 9t, 10t an 11t centuries. This growthe wis made possible bi expandit rice cultivation in central an soothren Song, the uise o early-ripenin rice frae sooth-east an soothren Asie, an the production o widespreid fuid superpluses.[3][4] The Northern Song census recordit 20 million hoosehauds, dooble o the Han an Tang dynasties. It is estimatit that the Northren Song haed a population o some 120 million fowk,[5] an 200 million bi the time o the Ming dynasty.[6] This dramatic increase o population fomentit an economic revolution in pre-modren Cheenae. The expansion o the population, growthe o ceeties, an the emergence o a naitional economy led tae the gradual widrawal o the central govrenment frae direct involvement in economic affairs. The lawer gentry assumed a lairger role in gressruits admeenistration an local affairs. Appyntit offeecials in coonty an provincial centres relied upon the scholartly gentry for thair services, sponsorship, an local superveesion.

Social life in the Song wis vibrant. Ceetizens gaithered tae view an tred precious airtwarks, the populace intermingled at public festivals an preevat clubs, an ceeties haed lively enterteenment quarters. The spreid o literatur an knawledge wis enhanced bi the rapid expansion o widblock prentin an the 11t-century invention o muivable-teep prentin. Technology, science, filosofie, mathematics, an ingineerin floorished ower the coorse o the Song. Filosofers sic as Cheng Yi an Zhu Xi reinveegoratit Confucianism wi new commentary, infuised wi Buddhist ideals, an emphasized a new organisation o clessic texts that brocht oot the core doctrine o Neo-Confucianism. Awtho the institution o the ceevil service examinations haed existit syne the Sui dynasty, it becam muckle mair prominent in the Song period. The offeecials that gained pouer bi succeedin in the exams becam a leadin factor in the shift frae a militar-aristocratic elite to a bureaucratic elite.

ReferencesEedit

  1. Rossabi 1988, p. 115.
  2. Rossabi 1988, p. 76.
  3. Ebrey, Walthall & Palais 2006, p. 156.
  4. Brook 1998, p. 96.
  5. Durand, John (1960). "The Population Statistics of China, A.D. 2-1953". Population Studies. 3 (3): 209. doi:10.2307/2172247. JSTOR 2172247. 
  6. Veeck et al. 2007, pp. 103–104.