Seelicon, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element wi the seembol Si an atomic nummer 14. It is less reactive nor its chemical analog caurbon, the nonmetal directly abuin it in the periodic table, but mair reactive nor germanium, the metalloid directly ablo it in the table. Controversy aboot seelicon's chairacter dates tae its discovery; it wis first prepared an characterized in pure furm in 1823. In 1808, it wis gien the name silicium (frae Laitin: silex, haird stane or flint), wi an -ium wird-endin tae suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-Inglis leids. Houiver, its final Inglis name, first suggestit in 1817, reflects the mair pheesically seemilar elements carbon an boron.

Silicon, 14Si
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Silicon
Pronunciation/ˈsɪlɪkən/ (SIL-ik-ən)
Appearancecrystalline, reflective wi bluish-tinged faces
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Si)[28.08428.086] conventional: 28.085
Silicon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
Atomic nummer (Z)14
Groupgroup 14 (caurbon group)
Periodperiod 3
Blockp-block
Element category  Metalloid
Electron confeeguration[Ne] 3s2 3p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1687 K ​(1414 °C, ​2577 °F)
Bylin pynt3538 K ​(3265 °C, ​5909 °F)
Density (near r.t.)2.3290 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)2.57 g/cm3
Heat o fusion50.21 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation359 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity19.789 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0,[1] +1,[2] +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.90
Ionisation energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 111 pm
Covalent radius111 pm
Van der Waals radius210 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o silicon
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceprimordial
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond cubic creestal structur for silicon
Speed o soond thin rod8433 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion2.6 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity149 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity103[3] Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[4]
Young's modulus130-188[5] GPa
Shear modulus51-80[5] GPa
Bulk modulus97.6[5] GPa
Poisson ratio0.064 - 0.28[5]
Mohs haurdness7
CAS Nummer7440-21-3
History
PredictionAntoine Lavoisier (1787)
DiskiveryJöns Jacob Berzelius[6][7] (1823)
First isolationJöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named byThomas Thomson (1817)
Main isotopes o silicon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
28Si 92.23% stable
29Si 4.67% stable
30Si 3.1% stable
32Si trace 153 y β 32P
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ReferencesEedit

  1. "New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". ChemistryViews. 27 August 2016.
  2. Ram, R. S.; et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190 (2): 341–352. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1998.7582. PMID 9668026.
  3. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 [1] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010
  6. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (8): 1386–1412. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1386W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386.
  7. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397.
  8. Ram, R. S.; et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD" (PDF). J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)