Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process bi which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced frae thair "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental featur o aw kent life; each individual organism exists as the result o reproduction. Thare are twa forms o reproduction: asexual an sexual.

In asexual reproduction, an organism can reproduce withoot the involvement o anither organism. Asexual reproduction is nae leemitit tae single-celled organisms. The clonin o an organism is a form o asexual reproduction. Bi asexual reproduction, an organism creauts a genetically seemilar or identical copy o itsel. The evolution o sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. The twa-fauld cost o sexual reproduction is that anerly 50% o organisms reproduce[1] an organisms anerly pass on 50% o thair genes.[2]

Sexual reproduction teepically requires the sexual interaction o twa specialised organisms, cried gametes, that conteen hauf the nummer o chromosomes o normal cells an are creautit bi meiosis, wi teepically a male fertilisin a female o the same speshies tae creaut a fertilised zygote. This produces affspring organisms that's genetic chairactereestics are derived frae thae o the twa paurental organisms.


  1. Ridley M (2004) Evolution, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing, p. 314.
  2. John Maynard Smith The Evolution of Sex 1978.