In chemistry, pH (/ / or / /) is a measur o the acidity or basicity o an aqueous solution. Solutions wi a pH less nor 7 are said tae be acidic an solutions wi a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure watter haes a pH very close tae 7.
The pH scale is traceable tae a set o staundart solutions whose pH is established bi internaitional agreement. Primary pH staundart values are determined uisin a concentration cell wi transference, bi measurin the potential difference atween a hydrogen electrode an a staundart electrode sic as the silver chloride electrode. Measurment o pH for aqueous solutions can be duin wi a glass electrode an a pH meter, or uisin indicators.
pH measurements are important in medicine, biology, chemistry, agricultur, forestry, fuid science, environmental science, oceanography, ceevil ingineerin, chemical ingineerin, nutrition, watter treatment & watter purification, an mony ither applications.
- Covington, A. K.; Bates, R. G.; Durst, R. A. (1985). "Definitions of pH scales, standard reference values, measurement of pH, and related terminology" (PDF). Pure Appl. Chem. 57 (3): 531–542. doi:10.1351/pac198557030531.
- Bates, Roger G. Determination of pH: theory and practice. Wiley, 1973.