Nucleic acids are polymeric macromolecules, or lairge biological molecules, essential for aw kent forms o life. Thay are componed o nucleotides, that are monomers made o three components: a 5-caurbon succar, a phosphate group an a nitrogenous base. If the succar is a compoond ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the succar is derived frae ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Nucleic acids are the maist important o aw biomolecules. Thay are foond in abundance in aw leevin things, whaur thay function tae creaut an encode an then store information in the nucleus o ivery leevin cell o ivery life-form organism on Yird. In turn, thay function tae transmit an express that information inside an ootside the cell nucleus—tae the interior operations o the cell an ultimately tae the next generation o ilk leevin organism. The encodit information is conteened an conveyed via the nucleic acid sequence, that provides the 'laider-step' orderingo nucleotides within the molecules o RNA and DNA.
Strings o nucleotides are bondit tae form helical backbones—typically, ane for RNA, twa for DNA—and assemmled intae chains o base-pairs selectit frae the five primar, or canonical, nucleobases, that are: adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, an uracil; note, thymine occurs anerly in DNA an uracil anerly in RNA. Uisin amino acids an the process kent as protein synthesis, the speceefic sequencin in DNA o thir nucleobase-pairs enables storin an transmittin coded instructions as genes. In RNA, base-pair sequencin provides for manufacturin new proteins that determine the frames an pairts an maist chemical processes o aw life forms.