The Nagorno-Karabakh War (Azerbaijani: Qarabağ Müharibəsi), referred tae as the Artsakh Liberation War (Armenie: Արցախյան ազատամարտ, Artsakhyan azatamart) bi Armenians, wis an ethnic conflict that teuk place in the late 1980s tae Mey 1994, in the enclave o Nagorno-Karabakh in soothwastren Azerbaijan, atween the majority ethnic Armenies o Nagorno-Karabakh backed bi the Republic o Armenie, an the Republic o Azerbaijan.
|Pairt o the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict|
Clockwise frae tap: Remnants o Azerbaijani APCs; internally displaced Azerbaijanis frae the Armenie-controlled territory; Armenie T-72 tank memorial at the ootskirts o Stepanakert; NKR soldiers.
Armenie Revolutionary Federation
Azerbaijani Popular Front
|Commanders an leaders|
Tatul Krpeyan †
Monte Melkonian †
Ayaz Mutallibov |
|20,000 (NKR forces, includes 8,000 frae Armenie)||
Afghan mujahideen: 1,000–3,000
Chechen militants: 300
Turkey: 350 officers an "thoosands" o volunteers, includin 200 Grey Wolves
|Casualties an losses|
- Ordway, John (30 July 2004). "Party Primer: Top Armenian Political Parties" (For Official Use Only). WikiLeaks.
Members of the ARF fought actively in the Karabakh conflict and the party had its own military units. Later, when Karabakh and Armenia formed regular armies, some of the Dashnak units merged with the armies, others were disarmed.
- Rieff, David (1997). "Case Study in Ethnic Strife". Council on Foreign Relations.
The Dashnaks, of course, are the ones who did the heavy lifting on the ground. Their men, including a substantial number of volunteers from the diaspora, did a great deal of the fighting and dying before the cease-fire.
- Hoge, James F. (2010). The Clash of Civilizations: The Debate. Council on Foreign Relations. p. 17. ISBN 9780876094365.
In the last years of its existence, the Soviet government supported Azerbaijan because its government was dominated by former communists.
- Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia. London: Europa Publications. 2002. p. 77. ISBN 9781857431377.
Soviet security forces supported Azerbaijan's efforts to reimpose control over Nagornyi Karabakh and Armenian villages outside the enclave.
- Truscott, Peter (1997). Russia First: Breaking with the West. London: Tauris Publ. p. 74. ISBN 9781860641992.
Initially, the Soviet regime in the Kremlin appears to have supported Azerbaijan in its attempt to maintain the territorial integrity of the borders established by Stalin in 1921.
- Asatryan, Garnik; Arakelova, Victoria (2002). "The Ethnic Minorities of Armenia" (PDF). Yerevan: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 8 August 2007.
The Armenia’s Yezidis many times showed gallantry and patriotism, particularly during the Karabakh conflict when many of their volunteers spilled their blood in the defense of this country.
- "Armenia's Yezidi community needs MP". Tert.am. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
Tamoyan recalled that a 500-member Yezidi detachment participated in the Nagorno-Karabakh war, and 30 of them were killed or went missing.
- Осетинский батальон в Арцахской освободительной войне (in Roushie). «time to analyze» — politics, society, and ideas. 13 March 2013.
- Benson, Brett V. (2012). Constructing International Security: Alliances, Deterrence, and Moral Hazard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9781107027244.
Russia was widely viewed as supporting the Armenian position. Much of this perception stemmed from the fact that Russia transferred military support to Armenia during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
- "Strategic impact" (4). Bucharest: Romanian National Defence University "Carol I" Centre for Defence and Security Strategic Studies. 2010: 35.
Greece supported Armenia both by delivering military and economic assistance and diplomatic representation by promoting the Armenia's interests in the EU and NATO.
- Taarnby 2008, p. 6.
- Griffin, Nicholas (2004). Caucasus: A Journey to the Land Between Christianity and Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 185–186. ISBN 0-226-30859-6.
- Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Sullivan, Paige, eds. (1997). Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: M. E. Sharpe. p. 616. ISBN 9781563246371.
It is also revealed that a new force of 200 armed members of the Grey Wolves organization has been dispatched from Turkey in preparation for a new Azeri offensive and to train units of the Azeri army.
- Cornell, Svante E. (1998). "Turkey and the Conflict in Nagorno Karabakh: A Delicate Balance". Middle Eastern Studies. 34 (1).
The only country that constantly expressed its support for Azerbaijan is Turkey.
- Osipova, Yelena; Bilgin, Fevzi (2013). Revisiting Armenian-Turkish Reconciliation (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Rethink Institute. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-938300-09-7.
As the war over Nagorno Karabakh unfolded, and as Turkey sided with Azerbaijan...
- Balayev, Bahruz (2013). The Right to Self-Determination in the South Caucasus: Nagorno Karabakh in Context. Lexington Books. p. 70. ISBN 9780739178287.
Turkey took the Azerbaijani position, showing special activity. It rendered active military help to Azerbaijan. In the Azerbaijani army there were Turkish officers-instructors and a group of the Azerbaijani men started training in Turkey.
- Murinson, Alexander (October 2014). "The Ties Between Israel and Azerbaijan" (PDF). Mideast Security and Policy Studies No. 110. Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 3 November 2014.
Israel supported the Azeri side in this conflict by supplying Stinger missiles to Azerbaijani troops during the war.
- Dekmejian, Richard Hrair; Simonian, Hovann H. (2003). Troubled Waters: The Geopolitics of the Caspian Region. p. 125. ISBN 9781860649226.
In addition to commercial links, Israel has given strong backing to Azerbaijan in its conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, which reportedly has included military assistance.
- Azadian, Edmond Y. (1999). History on the Move: Views, Interviews and Essays on Armenian Issues. Wayne State University Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780814329160.
But as subsequent events evolved it became all too apparent that Ukraine has steadfastly stood behind Azerbaijan in the Nagorno-Karabagh conflict all along. ...it was reported from Stepanakert that Ukraine had shipped 40 tanks to Azerbaijan. Later that number was raised to 59. Ukraine had also supplied Azerbaijan with Mig-21 attack places.
- de Waal 2003, p. 200: "Yet it is not entirely clear how this support for the Armenians was translated on to the battleﬁeld; to complicate things further, the Russians also gave some assistance to Azerbaijan."
- HRW 1994, p. 129.
- Chorbajian, Levon; Patrick Donabedian; Claude Mutafian (1994). The Caucasian Knot: The History and Geopolitics of Nagorno-Karabagh. London: Zed Books. pp. 13–18. ISBN 1-85649-288-5. Unless otherwise stated, the statistics cited by the authors is from data compiled by the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies in its annual The Military Balance, published in 1993. The 20,000 figure of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh included 8,000 volunteers from Armenia itself; Armenia's military in the report was exclusively made up of members in the army; Azerbaijan's statistics referred to 38,000 members in its army and 1,600 in its air force. Reference to these statistics can be found on pages 68–69 and 71–73 of the report.
- Charalampidis 2013, p. 6: "Different independent sources – expert, intelligence and official – estimated that the number of Afghan ﬁghters during the period of 1993-1994 ﬂuctuated between 1500-3000."
- Taarnby 2008, p. 7: "Estimates fluctuated wildly concerning how many Mujahedin actually entered Azerbaijan between 1993 and 1994. Numbers range from 1,000 to as high as 3,000."
- Charalampidis 2013, p. 3.
- Demoyan, Hayk (2006). "Turkey and the Karabakh Conflict: Summary". Турция и Карабахский конфликт в конце XX – начале XXI веков. Историко-сравнительный анализ (PDF) (in Roushie and English). Yerevan. p. 226.
Turkey continued to provide military as well as economic aid to Azerbaijan. As further proof, the Turkish army and intelligence services launched undercover operations to supply Azerbaijan with arms and military personnel. According to Turkish sources, over 350 high-ranking officers and thousands of volunteers from Turkey participated in the warfare on the Azerbaijani side.Unkent parameter
- (in Roushie) Melik-Shahnazarov, Arsen. Нагорный Карабах: факты против лжи.
- de Waal 2003, p. 285.
- Quoted in Bertsch, Gary (1999). Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia. London: Routledge. p. 297. ISBN 0-415-92273-9.
- "Winds of Change in Nagorno Karabakh ." Euronews. 28 November 2009.
- Ohanyan, Karine; Zarema Velikhanova (12 May 2004). "Investigation: Karabakh: Missing in Action – Alive or Dead?". Institute for War and Peace Reporting.
- Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh - civilians, viewed 2013-05-03
- "Gefährliche Töne im "Frozen War"." Wiener Zeitung. 2 January 2013.