Munich massacre

The Munich massacre wis an attack in the 1972 Simmer Olympics in Munich, Wast Germany, in that the Palestinian terrorist group Black September teuk eleiven Israeli Olympic team members hostage an killt them alang wi a Wast German polis officer.[3][4][5][6]

1972 Munich Massacre
Cairt o Wast Germany (the Federal Republic o Germany atween 1949 an 1990)
Locator dot
LocationMunich, Wast Germany
Coordinates48°10′47″N 11°32′57″E / 48.17972°N 11.54917°E / 48.17972; 11.54917Coordinates: 48°10′47″N 11°32′57″E / 48.17972°N 11.54917°E / 48.17972; 11.54917
Date5–6 September 1972
4:31 am – 12:04 am (UTC+1)
TargetIsraeli Olympic team
Attack teep
Daiths17 tot (includin perpetrators)
  • 6 Israeli coaches
  • 5 Israeli athletes
  • 5 Black September members
  • 1 Wast German polis officer
PerpetratorsBlack September
MotiveIsraeli–Palestinian conflict

Shortly efter the creesis began, a Black September spokesman demandit that 234 Palestinian preesoners jailed in Israel an the Wast German–held foonders o the Reid Airmy Faction, Andreas Baader an Ulrike Meinhof, be released.[7][8] Black September cried the operation "Iqrit an Biram",[9] efter two Palestinian Christian veelages that's inhabitants war expelled bi the Israel Defence Forces (IDF) in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. The Black September commander, Luttif Afif, wis born tae Jewish and Christian paurents. His group wis associatit wi secular naitionalism, wirkin for the richts o Palestinians in Israel.[10] Wast German neo-Nazis gae the group logistical assistance.[11]

Polis officers killt five o the aicht Black September members in a failed attempt tae rescue the hostages. A Wast German polisman wis an aw killed in the crossfire. The other three Palestinian hijackers war captured. The next month, houiver, follaein the hijackin o Lufthansa Flicht 615, the Wast German govrenment released them in a hostage exchange. Mossad respondit wi the 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon an Operation Wraith o God, trackin doun an killin Palestinians suspectit o involvement in the Munich massacre.[12]

Twa days prior tae the stairt o the 2016 Simmer Olympics, in a ceremony led bi Brazilian an Israeli officials, the Internaitional Olympic Committee honoured the eleiven Israelis that war killt at Munich.[13]


  1. Breznican, Anthony (22 December 2005). "Messages from 'Munich'". USAToday. Gannett Co. Retrieved 17 April 2009.
  2. Karon, Tony (12 September 2000). "Revisiting the Olympics' Darkest Day". Time. Archived frae the oreeginal on 1 October 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  3. Juan Sanchez (7 August 2007). Terrorism & Its Effects. Global Media. p. 144. ISBN 978-81-89940-93-5. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  4. The new dimension of international ... Google Books. 11 September 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  5. Encyclopedia of terrorism. Google Books. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  6. The terrorist trap: America's ... Google Books. 18 July 1976. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  7. Reeve, Simon (22 January 2006), "Olympics Massacre: Munich – The real story", The Independent, archived frae the oreeginal on 16 March 2012, retrieved 3 March 2012 Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  8. Fleisher, Malkah (22 July 2012). ""Baffled" Bob Costas to Call Own Minute of Silence During Olympic Broadcast for Slain Israeli Team". The Jewish Press. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
  9. Terrorism: A Global Scourge – Google Livres. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  10. Ciment, James (20 March 2015). Encyclopedia of Conflicts Since World War II. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-317-47186-8. Early acts at Palestinian terrorism were geared toward drawing international attention to the plight of Arabs living under Israeli occupation and to secure the release of Palestinian prisoners. Unlike much later terrorism in the Arab Muslim world, these acts, which ranged from plane hijackings to targeted attacks on Israeli civilians, were motivated largely by a secular brand of nationalism. In fact, Luttif "Issa" Afif, the leader of the PLO-affiliated Black September group that captured and killed 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics, was born to a Jewish mother and a Christian father.
  11. Latsch, Gunther; Wiegrefe, Klaus (18 June 2012), "Files Reveal Neo-Nazis Helped Palestinian Terrorists", Spiegel Online
  12. James Montague (5 September 2012). "The Munich massacre: A survivor's story". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  13. "First official Olympic ceremony held in memory of Munich victims",; accessed 5 September 2017.