The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipaedia airticle for mojibake, as displayed in the Windows-1252 encodin.

Mojibake (文字化け) (IPA: [mod͡ʑibake]; lit. "chairacter transformation"), frae the Japanese 文字 (moji) "chairacter" + 化け (bake, pronoonced "bah-keh") "transform", is the garbled text that is the result o text bein decodit uisin an unintendit chairacter encodin.[1]


  1. "Will Unicode soon be the universal code?" IEEE Spectrum, vol. 49, issue 7, p. 60 (Julie 2012). The advantage of Unicode is that if everyone adopted it, it would eradicate the problem of mojibake, Japanese for "character transformation." Mojibake is the jumble that results when characters are encoded in one system but decoded in another.