Mary, Queen o Scots
Mary, Queen o Scots (7/8 December 1542 – 8 Februar 1587), kent as Mary Stuart or Mary I o Scotland an aw, wis queen regnant o Scotland frae 14 December 1542 tae 24 Julie 1567 an queen consort o Fraunce frae 10 Julie 1559 tae 5 December 1560.
Portrait o Mary efter François Clouet, c. 1559
|Queen o Scots|
|Ring||14 December 1542 – 24 Julie 1567|
|Coronation||9 September 1543|
|Regent||James Hamilton, 2nt Earl o Arran (1542–1554)|
Mary o Guise (1554–1560)
|Queen consort o Fraunce|
|Tenure||10 Julie 1559 – 5 December 1560|
|Born||7/8 December 1542|
Lithgae Palace, Lithgae
|Dee'd||8 Februar 1587 (aged 44)|
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire
|Buirial||Peterborough Cathedral; Westminster Abbey|
|Spouse||Francis II o Fraunce|
m. 1558; dec. 1560
Henry Stuart, Laird Darnley
m. 1565; dec. 1567
James Hepburn, 4t Yerl o Boddle
m. 1567; dec. 1578
|Issue||James VI o Scotland an I o Ingland|
|Hoose||o Stuart (bi birth)|
o Valois (bi first mairiage)
|Faither||James V o Scotland|
|Mither||Mary o Guise|
Mary, the ainly survivin legitimate bairn o James V o Scotland, wis sax days auld whan her faither dee'd an she accedit tae the throne. She spent maist o her bairnheid in Fraunce while Scotland wis ruled bi regents, an in 1558, she mairied the Dauphin o Fraunce, Francis. He ascendit the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, an Mary briefly becam queen consort o Fraunce, till his daith in December 1560. Widaed, Mary returned tae Scotland, arrivin in Leith on 19 August 1561. Fower year later, she mairied her first cuisin, Henry Stuart, Laird Darnley, but thair union wis unhappy. In Februar 1567, his residence wis destroyed bi an explosion, an Darnley wis foond murthert in the gairden.
James Hepburn, 4t Yerl o Boddle, wis generally believed tae hae been ahind Darnley's daith, but he wis acquittit o the chairge in Aprile 1567, an the follaein month he mairied Mary. Follaein an uprisin against the couple, Mary wis haudit in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 Julie 1567, she wis forced tae abdicate in favour o James VI, her ane-year-auld son bi Darnley. Efter an unsuccessfu attempt tae regain the throne, she fled soothwarts seekin the pertection o her first cuisin ance remuived, Queen Elizabeth I o Ingland. Mary haed previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her ain an wis considert the legitimate sovereign o Ingland bi mony Inglis Catholics, includin participants in a rebellion kent as the Risin o the North. Perceivin her as a threit, Elizabeth haed her confined in various castles an manor hooses in the interior o Ingland. Efter aichteen an a hauf years in custody, Mary wis foond guilty o plottin tae assassinate Elizabeth in 1586. She wis beheidit the follaein year.
Bairnheid an early reignEedit
Mary wis born on 8 Dizember at Linlithgow Palace, Scotland, tae King James an his French seicont wife Mary o Guise. She wis thocht tae been born prematurely an wis the ainly leasome bairn o James tae survive him. She wis the great-niece o King Henry VIII o Ingland, as her grandmither on her faither's side wis Henry VIII's sister. On 14 Dizember, whan she wis sax days auld, her faither dee'd, aiblins frae the effects o a nervish clyte folloaein the Battle o Solway Moss or frae drinkin fylt watter while on campaign, an Mary becam Queen o Scotland.
- Bishop John Lesley said Mary wis born on the 7t, but Mary an John Knox claimed the 8t, that wis the feast day o the Immaculate Conception o the Virgin Mary (Fraser 1994, p. 13; Wormald 1988, p. 11).
- While Catholic Europe switched tae the New Style Gregorian calendar in the 1580s, Ingland an Scotland retained the Auld Style Julian calendar till 1752. In this airticle, dates afore 1752 are Auld Style, wi the exception that years are assumed tae stairt on 1 Januar rather nor 25 Mairch.
- spelt as Mairy or Marie an as Steuart or Stewart an aw
- Fraser 1994, p. 13
- Fraser 1994, p. 11; Wormald 1988, p. 46
- Guy 2004, p. 16
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