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The Kushan Empire (Bactrie: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Parthian: 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓 Kušan-xšaθr[6]) wis a syncretic empire, formed bi Yuezhi, in the Bactrie territories in the early 1st century. It spread tae encompass much o Afghanistan,[7] an then the northren pairts o the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa an Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), whaur inscriptions hae been foond datin tae the era o the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great.[8]

Kushan Empire
Κυϸανο (Bactrie)
कुषाण राजवंश (Sanskrit)
Βασιλεία Κοσσανῶν (Greek)
30–375
Kushan territories (full line) an maximum extent o Kushan dominions unner Kanishka the Great (dottit line), accordin tae the Rabatak inscription.[1]
Kushan territories (full line) an maximum extent o Kushan dominions unner Kanishka the Great (dottit line), accordin tae the Rabatak inscription.[1]
Status Nomadic empire
Caipital Bamiyan (Bamigián) Bagram (Kapiśi)
Peshawar (Puruṣapura)
Taxila (Takṣaśilā)
Mathura (Mathurā)
Common leids Greek (offeecial till ca. 127)[2]
Bactrie[3] (offeecial frae ca. 127)
Unoffeecial regional leids:
Gandhari, Sogdian, Chorasmian, Tocharian, Saka dialects, Prakrit
Leeturgical leid:
Sanskrit
Releegion Buddhism
Hinduism[4]
Shamanism
Zoroastrianism
Manichaeism
various Bactrie-Indie releegions
Govrenment Monarchy
Emperor  
• 30–80
Kujula Kadphises
• 350–375
Kipunada
Historical era Clessical Antiquity
• Kujula Kadphises unites Yuezhi tribes intae a confederation
30
• Subjugatit bi the Sasanians, Guptas an Hepthalites[5]
375
Aurie
3,800,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi)
Currency Kushan drachma
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Indo-Parthian Kinrick
Indo-Scythians
Sasanian Empire
Gupta Empire
Hephthalite Empire
The day pairt o  Afghanistan
 Cheenae
 Kyrgyzstan
 Indie
   Nepal
 Pakistan
 Tajikistan
 Uzbekistan
 Turkmenistan

ReferencesEedit

  1. "The Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1 Kanishka I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka I himself." "Ancient Indian Inscriptions", S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also the analysis of Sims-Williams and J.Cribb, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great", in "Silk Road Art and Archaeology" No4, 1995–1996. Also Mukherjee B.N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin.
  2. The Kushans at first retained the Greek leid for admeenistrative purposes, but suin began tae uise Bactrie. The Bactrie Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 an deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan keeng Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discairdit Greek (Ionian) as the leid o admeenistration an adoptit Bactrie ("Arya leid"), frae Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133.
  3. The Bactrie Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 an deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan keeng Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discairdit Greek (Ionian) as the leid o admeenistration an adoptit Bactrie ("Arya leid"), frae Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133.
  4. André Wink, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries, (Oxford University Press, 1997), 57.
  5. "Afghanistan: Central Asian and Sassanian Rule, ca. 150 B.C.-700 A.D." United States: Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  6. The Dynasty Arts of the Kushans, University of California Press, 1967, p. 5
  7. http://www.kushan.org/general/other/part1.htm and Si-Yu-Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, (Tr. Samuel Beal: Travels of Fa-Hian, The Mission of Sung-Yun and Hwei-S?ng, Books 1–5), Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd. London. 1906 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 318–350
  8. which began about 127 CE. "Falk 2001, pp. 121–136", Falk (2001), pp. 121–136, Falk, Harry (2004), pp. 167–176 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 33, 368–371.