The Kushan Empire (Bactrie: Κυϸανο, Kushano; Sanskrit: कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS: Guṣāṇa-vaṃśa; Parthian: 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓 Kušan-xšaθr) wis a syncretic empire, formed bi Yuezhi, in the Bactrie territories in the early 1st century. It spread tae encompass much o Afghanistan, an then the northren pairts o the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa an Sarnath near Varanasi (Benares), whaur inscriptions hae been foond datin tae the era o the Kushan emperor Kanishka the Great.
Bamiyan (Bamigián) Bagram (Kapiśi)|
Greek (offeecial till ca. 127)|
Bactrie (offeecial frae ca. 127)
Unoffeecial regional leids:
Gandhari, Sogdian, Chorasmian, Tocharian, Saka dialects, Prakrit
various Bactrie-Indie releegions
|Historical era||Clessical Antiquity|
|3,800,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi)|
|The day pairt o||
- "The Rabatak inscription claims that in the year 1 Kanishka I's authority was proclaimed in India, in all the satrapies and in different cities like Koonadeano (Kundina), Ozeno (Ujjain), Kozambo (Kausambi), Zagedo (Saketa), Palabotro (Pataliputra) and Ziri-Tambo (Janjgir-Champa). These cities lay to the east and south of Mathura, up to which locality Wima had already carried his victorious arm. Therefore they must have been captured or subdued by Kanishka I himself." "Ancient Indian Inscriptions", S. R. Goyal, p. 93. See also the analysis of Sims-Williams and J.Cribb, who had a central role in the decipherment: "A new Bactrian inscription of Kanishka the Great", in "Silk Road Art and Archaeology" No4, 1995–1996. Also Mukherjee B.N. "The Great Kushanan Testament", Indian Museum Bulletin.
- The Kushans at first retained the Greek leid for admeenistrative purposes, but suin began tae uise Bactrie. The Bactrie Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 an deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan keeng Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discairdit Greek (Ionian) as the leid o admeenistration an adoptit Bactrie ("Arya leid"), frae Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133.
- The Bactrie Rabatak inscription (discovered in 1993 an deciphered in 2000) records that the Kushan keeng Kanishka the Great (c. 127 AD), discairdit Greek (Ionian) as the leid o admeenistration an adoptit Bactrie ("Arya leid"), frae Falk (2001): "The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuṣâṇas." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, p. 133.
- André Wink, Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries, (Oxford University Press, 1997), 57.
- "Afghanistan: Central Asian and Sassanian Rule, ca. 150 B.C.-700 A.D." United States: Library of Congress Country Studies. 1997. Retrieved 2012-08-16.
- The Dynasty Arts of the Kushans, University of California Press, 1967, p. 5
- http://www.kushan.org/general/other/part1.htm and Si-Yu-Ki, Buddhist Records of the Western World, (Tr. Samuel Beal: Travels of Fa-Hian, The Mission of Sung-Yun and Hwei-S?ng, Books 1–5), Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd. London. 1906 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 318–350
- which began about 127 CE. "Falk 2001, pp. 121–136", Falk (2001), pp. 121–136, Falk, Harry (2004), pp. 167–176 and Hill (2009), pp. 29, 33, 368–371.