Knossos[4] (Greek: Κνωσός, Knōsós, [knoˈsos]), an aa Laitinised as Cnossus or Gnossus,[5] is the lairgest Bronze Age airchaeological steid on Crete an is conseedered Europe's auldest ceety.[6]

Knossos - North Portico 02.jpg
Restored North Entrance wi chairgin bull fresco
Crete integrated map-en.svg
Crete, shawin Heraklion, location o auncient Knōsos
Alternate nameCnossus
LocationHeraklion, Crete, Greece
RegionNorth central coast, 5 km (3.1 mi) sootheast o Heraklion
Coordinates35°17′53″N 25°9′47″E / 35.29806°N 25.16306°E / 35.29806; 25.16306Coordinates: 35°17′53″N 25°9′47″E / 35.29806°N 25.16306°E / 35.29806; 25.16306
TeepPalace complex, admeenistrative centre, caipital o Crete an regions within its jurisdiction
LenthNorth-south length o inhabitit aurie is 5 km (3.1 mi)[1]
WidthEast-west width o inhabitit aurie is 3 km (1.9 mi) max.
AurieTot inhabitit aurie is 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi). The palace biggin itsel is 14,000 m2 (150,000 sq ft)[2]
MaterialAshlar blocks o limestane or gypsum, wid, mud-brick, rubble for fill, plaster
FoonditThe first settlement dates tae aboot 7000 BC. The first palace dates tae 1900 BC.
AbandonedAt some time in Late Minoan IIIC, 1380–1100 BC
PeriodsNeolithic tae Late Bronze Age. The first palace wis biggit in the Middle Minoan IA period.
CultursMinoan, Mycenaean
Associatit wiIn the Middle Minoan, fowk o unkent ethnicity termed Minoans; in the Late Minoan, bi Mycenaean Greeks
Site notes
Excavation dates1900–1931
AirchaeologistsFor the ineetial teams' wirk discoverin the palace: Arthur Evans; David George Hogarth, Director o the British School of Archaeology at Athens; Duncan Mackenzie, superintendent o excavation; Theodore Fyfe, Architect; Christian Doll, Architect
For the addeetional wirk on the Neolithic stairtin in 1957: John Davies Evans
CondeetionRestored an maintained for veesitation. Evans uised mainly concrete. Modren interventions include open ruifin o fragile areas, stabilised sile, paved walkways, non-slip widden ramps, trash receptacles, perimeter barbed wire fence, security lichtin, retail store an dinin ruim[3]
AinershipOreeginally ained bi Cretans, then bi Arthur Evans, follaed bi the British School at Athens, an finally bi the current ainer, the Republic o Greece.
Management23rd Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities
Public accessYes
Wabsteid"Knossos". British School at Athens.
"Knossos". Odysseus. Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism. 2007.
Current activity is preservational. Restoration is extensive. Painted concrete was used for wood in the pillars. The frecoes often were recreated from a few flakes of painted plaster.


  1. Papadopoulos, John K (1997), "Knossos", in Delatorre, Marta (ed.), The conservation of archaeological sites in the Mediterranean region : an international conference organized by the Getty Conservation Institute and the Paul Getty Museum, 6–12 May 1995, Los Angeles: The Paul Getty Trust, p. 93
  2. McEnroe, John C. (2010). Architecture of Minoan Crete: Constructing Identity in the Aegean Bronze Age. Austin: University of Texas Press. p. 50. Houever, Davaras & Doumas 1957, p. 5, an offeecial guide beuk in uise in past years, gives the dimensions of the palace as 150 m (490 ft) square, aboot 20,000 m2 (220,000 sq ft). A certain amoont o subjectivity is undoubtedly involved in settin the borders for meisurment.
  3. Stratis, James C. (October 2005), Kommos Archaeological Site Conservation Report (PDF),
  4. EB (1911), p. 573.
  5. EB (1878).
  6. Todd Whitelaw 2012, p. 223.