Java (programmin leid)
Java is a computer programmin leid that is concurrent, class-based, object-orientit, an specifically designed tae hae as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is intendit tae let application developers "write ace, run onywhaur" (WORA), meanin that code that runs on ane platform daes nae need tae be recompiled tae run on anither. Java applications are typically compiled tae bytecode (class file) that can run on ony Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless o computer airchitectur. Java is, as o 2012, ane o the maist popular programmin leids in uise, particularly for client-server wab applications, wi a reportit 9 million developers. Java wis originally developed bi James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which haes syne merged intae Oracle Corporation) an released in 1995 as a core component o Sun Microseestems' Java platform. The leid derives much o its syntax frae C an C++, but it haes fewer low-level facilities nor either o them.
|Paradigm(s)||multi-paradigm: object-orientit, structured, imperative, generic, reflective|
James Gosling an|
|Stable release||Java Staundart Edeetion 7 Update 45 (1.7.45) (October 15, 2013)|
|Typin discipline||Static, strang, safe, nominative, manifest|
|Major implementations||OpenJDK, many others|
|Dialects||Generic Java, Pizza|
|Influenced bi||Ada 83, C++, C#, Eiffel, Generic Java, Mesa, Modula-3, Oberon, Objective-C, UCSD Pascal, Smalltalk|
|Implementation leid||C an C++|
|License||GNU General Public License, Java Community Process|
|Usual filename extensions||.java, .class, .jar|
|Wabsteid||For Java Developers|
- "The History of Java Technology". Retrieved October 6, 2012.
- Java 5.0 addit several new leid featurs (the enhanced for loop, autoboxin, varargs an annotations), efter thay wur introduced in the seemilar (an competin) C# leid  
- Gosling, James; and McGilton, Henry (May 1996). "The Java Language Environment".
- Gosling, James; Joy, Bill; Steele, Guy; and Bracha, Gilad. "The Java Language Specification, 2nd Edition".
- "The A-Z of Programming Languages: Modula-3". Computerworld.com.au. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
- Niklaus Wirth stated on a number of public occasions, e.g. in a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum, Moscow in September, 2005 (several independent first-hand accounts in Russian exist, e.g. one with an audio recording: Filippova, Elena (September 22, 2005). "Niklaus Wirth's lecture at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow".), that the Sun Java design team licenced the Oberon compiler sources a number of years prior to the release of Java and examined it: a (relative) compactness, type safety, garbage collection, no multiple inheritance for classes -- all these key overall design features are shared by Java and Oberon.
- Patrick Naughton cites Objective-C as a strang influence on the design o the Java programmin leid, statin that notable direct derivatives include Java interfaces (derived frae Objective-C's protocol) an primitive wrapper classes. 
- TechMetrix Research (1999). "History of Java" (PDF). Java Application Servers Report.
The project went ahead under the name "green" and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code
- "A Conversation with James Gosling – ACM Queue". Queue.acm.org. 2004-08-31. Retrieved 2010-06-09.
- "Programming Language Popularity". 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-16.
- "TIOBE Programming Community Index". 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-06.