The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest[1] wis the maist significant conflict atween Kirk an state in medieval Europe. In the 11t an 12t centuries, a series of Papes challenged the authority o European monarchies ower control o appyntments, or investitures, o kirk offeecials such as bishops an abbots.


  1. Hughes, Michael (1992). Early Modern Germany, 1477–1806, MacMillan Press and University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, p.5. ISBN 0-8122-1427-7.