Indium is a chemical element wi seembol In an atomic nummer 49. This rare, very saft, malleable an easily fusible puir hivy metal is chemically seemilar tae gallium an thallium, an shaws intermediate properties atween thir twa. Indium wis discovered in 1863 an named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that wis the first indication o its existence in zinc ores, as a new an unkent element. The metal wis first isolatit in the follaein year. Zinc ores continue tae be the primary soorce o indium, whaur it is foond in compoond form. Very rarely the element can be foond as grains o native (free) metal, but thir are nae o commercial importance.

Indium, 49In
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Indium
Pronunciation/ˈɪndiəm/ (IN-dee-əm)
Appearancesillery lustrous gray
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(In)114.818(1)[1]
Mass numberIn:
Indium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ga

In

Tl
cadmiumindiumtin
Atomic nummer (Z)49
Groupgroup 13 (boron group)
Periodperiod 5
Blockp-block
Element category  Post-transeetion metal
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
Bylin pynt2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density (near r.t.)7.31 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.02 g/cm3
Treeple pynt429.7445 K, ​~1[2] kPa
Heat o fusion3.281 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−5, −2, −1, +1, +2, +3[3] (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.78
Atomic radiusempirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius193 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o indium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceIn: Primordial
Creestal structurtetragonal
Tetragonal creestal structur for indium
Speed o soond thin rod1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity83.7 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[4]
Young's modulus11 GPa
Mohs haurdness1.2
Brinell haurdness8.83 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-74-6
History
DiskiveryFerdinand Reich an Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolationHieronymous Theodor Richter (1867)
Main isotopes o indium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
113In 4.29% - (SF)
115In 95.71% 4.41×1014 y β 115Sn
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
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ReferencesEedit

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. Cite uses deprecated parameter |displayauthors= (help)
  2. Mangum, B W (1989). "Determination of the Indium Freezing-point and Triple-point Temperatures". Metrologia. 26 (4): 211. Bibcode:1989Metro..26..211M. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/4/001.
  3. Guloy, A. M.; Corbett, J. D. (1996). "Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding of Two Lanthanum Indium Germanides with Novel Structures and Properties". Inorganic Chemistry. 35 (9): 2616–22. doi:10.1021/ic951378e.
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.