Dutch East Indie Company

The Unitit East Indie Company (Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie in modren spellin; VOC), referred tae as the Dutch East Indie Company,[2] wis oreeginally established as a chairtered company in 1602, when the Dutch govrenment grantit it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice tred. It is eften conseedert tae be the warld's first trulelins transnaitional corporation[note 1][3] an the first company in history tae actually issue bonds an shares o stock tae the general public.[note 2]

Dutch East Indie Company / Unitit East Indie Company
Native name
Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC)
Publicly tradit company
IndustrieTred, manufacturin
PredecessorVoorcompagnie (Compagnie van Verre, Brabantsche Compagnie, Magelhaensche Compagnie)
Foondit20 Mairch 1602 (1602-03-20)[1]
FoonderJohan van Oldenbarnevelt
Defunct31 December 1799 (1799-12-31)
HeidquartersAmsterdam, Dutch Republic
Batavia, Dutch East Indies
Aurie served
Europe-Asie (Eurasie)
Key fowk
Heeren XVII/Gentlemen Seventeen (Dutch Republic, 1602–1799)
Govrenors-General o the Dutch East Indies (Batavia, 1610–1800)
ProductsSpice, silk, porcelain, metals, fermstockin, tea, grains (rice, soybeans), succarcane industrie, shipbiggin industrie


  1. A transnaitional corporation differs frae a tradeetional multinaitional corporation in that it disna identify itsel wi ane naitional hame. While tradeetional multinaitional corporations are naitional companies wi foreign subsidiaries, transnaitional corporations spread oot thair operations in mony kintras sustainin heich levels o local responsiveness. An ensaumple o a transnaitional corporation is the Ryal Dutch Shell corporation whase heidquarters mey be in The Hague, Netherlands but its registered office an main executive bouk is heidquartert in Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick. Anither example o a transnaitional corporation is Nestlé wha employ senior executives frae mony kintras an try tae mak deceesions frae a global perspective raither nor frae ane centralised heidquarters. While the VOC established its main admeenistrative centre, as the seicont heidquarters, in Batavia (Dutch East Indies, 1610-1800), the company's main heidquarters wis in Amsterdam (Dutch Republic). An aa, the company haed important operations ensewhaur.
  2. Edward Stringham (2015) notes: "Companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were usually not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed (Neal, 1997, p. 61)."[4]


  1. "The Dutch East India Company (VOC)". Canon van Nederland. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
  2. THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, European Heritage Project
  3. http://www.kb.nl/themas/geschiedenis-en-cultuur/koloniaal-verleden/voc-1602-1799 VOC at the National Library of the Netherlands (in Dutch)
  4. Stringham, Edward Peter: Private Governance: Creating Order in Economic and Social Life. (Oxford University Press, 2015, ISBN 9780199365166), p.42