Caurbon (frae Laitin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element wi seembol C an atomic nummer 6. As a member o group 14 on the periodic table, it is nonmetallic an tetravalent—makin fower electrons available tae furm covalent chemical bonds. Thare are three naiturally occurrin isotopes, wi 12C an 13C bein stable, while 14C is radioactive, decayin wi a hauf-life o aboot 5,730 years.[14] Caurbon is ane o the few elements kent syne antiquity.[15]

Carbon, 6C
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Graphite (left) an diamont (richt), twa allotropes o caurbon
Appearanceclear (diamond) & black (graphite)
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(C)[12.009612.0116] conventional: 12.011
Mass numberC:
Carbon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Atomic nummer (Z)6
Groupgroup 14 (caurbon group)
Periodperiod 2
Element category  Reactive nonmetal
Electron confeeguration[He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell2, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Sublimation pynt3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density (near r.t.)amorphous:[1] 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
Treeple pynt4600 K, ​10800[2][3] kPa
Heat o fusion117 (graphite) kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4, −3, −2, −1, 0, +1,[4] +2, +3,[5] +4[6] (a mildly acidic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.55
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius170 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o carbon
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceC: Primordial
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond creestal structur for carbon

(diamond, clear)
Speed o soond thin rod18350 (diamond) m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion0.8 (diamond)[7] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[8]
Young's modulus1050 (diamond)[7] GPa
Shear modulus478 (diamond)[7] GPa
Bulk modulus442 (diamond)[7] GPa
Poisson ratio0.1 (diamond)[7]
Mohs haurdness10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS Nummer7440-44-0
DiskiveryEgyptians an Sumerians[9] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element biAntoine Lavoisier[10] (1789)
Main isotopes o carbon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references

Thare are several allotropes o caurbon o which the baist kent are graphite, diamond, an amorphous caurbon.[16] The pheesical properties o caurbon vary widely wi the allotropic furm. For example, diamond is heichly transparent, while graphite is opaque an black. Diamond is the hairdest naiturally-occurrin material kent, while graphite is saft enough tae furm a streak on paper (hence its name, frae the Greek wird "γράφω" which means "tae write"). Diamond haes a very law electrical conductivity, while graphite is a very guid conductor. Unner normal condeetions, diamond, caurbon nanotube an graphene hae the heichest thermal conductivities o aw kent materials.

Aw caurbon allotropes are solits unner normal condeetions wi graphite bein the maist thermodynamically stable furm. Thay are chemically resistant an require heich temperatur tae react even wi oxygen. The maist common oxidation state o caurbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is foond in caurbon monoxide an ither transeetion metal carbonyl complexes. The lairgest soorces o inorganic caurbon are limestanes, dolomites an caurbon dioxide, but signeeficant quantities occur in organic deposits o coal, peat, ile an methane clathrates. Caurbon furms mair compoonds than ony ither element, wi almaist ten million pure organic compoonds describit tae date, which in turn are a tiny fraction o sic compoonds that are theoretically possible unner staundart condeetions.[17]

Caurbon is the 15t maist abundant element in the Yird's crust, an the fowert maist abundant element in the universe bi mass efter hydrogen, helium, an oxygen. It is present in aw kent life furms, an in the human bouk caurbon is the seicont maist abundant element bi mass (aboot 18.5%) efter oxygen.[18] This abundance, thegither wi the unique diversity o organic compoonds an thair unuisual polymer-furmin ability at the temperaturs commonly encoontered on Yird, mak this element the chemical basis o aw kent life.


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  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5.
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon. 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027.
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  7. a b c d e Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  9. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Retrieved 12 September 2008.
  10. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  12. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  13. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 6 December 2007.
  14. "Carbon – Naturally occurring isotopes". WebElements Periodic Table. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  15. "History of Carbon". Archived frae the original on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 10 Januar 2013.
  16. "World of Carbon – Interactive Nano-visulisation in Science & Engineering Education (IN-VSEE)". Archived frae the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  17. Chemistry Operations (15 December 2003). "Carbon". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Archived frae the original on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2008.
  18. "Biological Abundance of Elements". The Internet Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved 9 October 2008.

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